LC
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 17000000-28999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 6,470,000-10,700,000 pairs, which equates to 12,900,000-21,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.75% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 17,200,000-28,500,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Portugal Gerês mountains
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Hagieni forest
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Sweden Sandemar
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slupia River Valley
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
United Kingdom Exmoor Coast and Heaths
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Val Grande
Italy Capri island
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Riecnica
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Spisská Magura
Serbia Vlasina
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Germany Ammersee
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Federseeried
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Charlottenhofer Weihergebiet and Hirtlohweiher
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Wet grasslands and forests around Burbach
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Jammertal
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany High Westerwald around Driedorf
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Dune and aeolian sand area Dudenhofen, Babenhausen, Seligenstadt
Germany Knüll
Germany Waldeck upland
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Croatia Turopolje
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Russia (Central Asian) Kileinoye bog
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
France Domaine d'Orx
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Forêt de la Reine
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Sweden Bog of Komosse
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Duinen Terschelling
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Breginjski Stol and Planja
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Netherlands Fochteloërveen
Netherlands Bargerveen
Netherlands De Wieden
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Netherlands Dwingelderveld
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Netherlands Veluwe
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Germany Terborg
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Unterlüß / Kiehnmoor
Germany Mittleres Wietingsmoor
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Baar
Germany Lewitz
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Werra lowlands near Wanfried and Eschwege
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Schlei
Germany Selenter See
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Oldenburger Graben and Wesseker See
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Rurtal, Kermeter, Vogelsang and Kalterherberg
Germany Oberwesterwald, incl. Westerwald lake area and Neunkhausener Plateau
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Warder See
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Julijci
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Saxicola rubetra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/08/2020.