LC
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 319,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,000,000-2,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and > c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 343,000-402,000 pairs, which equates to 687,000-805,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-84.7% decline over 40 years, equating to a -37.5% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg N Extant
Macao (China) N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Samoa N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Chile Bahía de Chullec
Chile Bahía Curaco de Vélez
Chile Bahía de Quinchao
Chile Bahía de Yaldad
Chile Desembocadura del Río Chamiza,Coihuin-Pelluco
Chile Desembocadura del Río Imperial
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta
Chile Desembocadura del Río Maipo
Chile Desembocadura Río Mataquito
Chile Estero Mantagua y Desembocadura del Río Aconcagua
Chile Estuario de Maullín y Cerro Amortajado
Chile Humedal de Arauco
Chile Humedal-Estuario Tubul-Raqui
Chile Isla Grande de Chiloé
Chile Mehuin
Chile Playa Laraquete
Chile Sistema Quetalmahue, Quilo y Mar Brava
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Costa Rica Nicoya Peninsula
Ecuador Ciénaga de La Segua
Ecuador Humedales de Pacoa
Ecuador Lagunas de Ecuasal-Salinas
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vøtnini á Sandoy (Lakes of Sandoy)
Finland Kevo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Litokaira
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Iceland Markarfljótsaurar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Japan Hakata bay
Japan Hikawa estuary, Shiranui
Japan Inner Ariake bay
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Kamogawa estuary
Japan Kumakawa estuary
Japan Kumozugawa, Atagogawa and Kongogawa estuaries
Japan Lakes Komuke and Shibunotsunai
Japan Miyako islands
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
Japan Shirakawa estuary
Japan Sone tidal flat
Japan Tonegawa floodplain
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mexico Bahia de Ceuta-Cospita
Mexico Coastal hunedals of the North of the Peninsula of Yucatan
Mexico Ensenada of Pavilions
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Panama Chimán Wetlands
Panama Ensenada de Garachiné Wetlands
Panama Upper Bay of Panamá
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Olonets plain
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats
United Kingdom Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
USA Barrier Island/Lagoon System
USA Imperial Valley
Yemen Al-'Urj

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Numenius phaeopus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.