LC
Western Water Rail Rallus aquaticus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Rallus aquaticus and R. indicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as R. aquaticus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 33,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 32,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 600000-1499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 157,000-346,000 pairs, which equates to 314,000-693,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 630,000-1,400,000 mature individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 600,000-1,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Pape
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Belgium Bokrijk
Belgium Mechelse Heide en de Vallei van de Ziepbeek
Belgium Sinémurienne
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Dättern
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Oswin site
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Molochna river valley
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Archipel de Molène
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Etang de Biguglia
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Forêt de la Reine
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Basse vallée du Var
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Nene Washes
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Luxembourg Aspelt - Lannebur, am Kessel
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Jegricka
Slovakia Senné
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Machland
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Dümmer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Federseeried
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Ammersee
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Heerter See
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Rotes Moor
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Sewage pond Ida near Othfresen
Germany Innerste valley near Langelsheim
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Werra lowlands near Wanfried and Eschwege
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Prostyr
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sungul' Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Chelopechene Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Slovenia Črete
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Polesie
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Tuchola Forest
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Poland Irrigation Fields in Wroclaw
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Sweden Lake Lim
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Koigi
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Luitemaa
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Srednje Potamišje

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Rallus aquaticus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2020.