Western Rock Nuthatch Sitta neumayer


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 26 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,360,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500000-12999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,030,000-5,080,000 pairs, which equates to 2,060,000-10,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.80% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,575,000-12,750,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gobustan area
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Parnitha
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Galaxidi
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Mount Pilio
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Georgia Iori Region
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Croatia Neretva Delta
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Montenegro Biogradska woods
Syria Mount Hermon
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Syria Wadi al-Qarn - Burqush
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Armenia Meghri
Bulgaria Madzharovo
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Mariovo
Iraq Benavi and Sararu
Iraq Dure
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Wadi Jouhanam
Lebanon Ramlieh Valley
Lebanon Semi Deserts of Ras Baalbek
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Lebanon Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donnieh
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Gorayk
Armenia Haghartsin
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Iraq Ahmed Awa
Iraq Bakhma and Bradost Mountain
Iraq Barzan Area and Gali Balnda
Iraq Chami Razan
Iraq Doli Smaquli and Ashab
Iraq Gara Mountain and Garagu
Iraq Hawraman Area
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Iraq Qara Dagh
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Iraq Mangesh

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Sitta neumayer. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022.