Western Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000-5499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 666,000-1,060,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 1,330,000-2,110,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,325,000-5,275,000 mature individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 3,000,000-5,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be declining owing to habitat destruction and alteration. Considerable range contraction has occurred in the east and west of the species's range, resulting in local extinctions (Madge and McGowan 2002). In Europe the population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extinct Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom R Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Persenk
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Haut Giffre
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Dolomites
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Rakupe and Pace
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Geledne forest
Lithuania Karaviskes forest
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Pertakas Ornithological Reserve
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Janów forests
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Tatra mountains
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Ceahlă Mountains
Romania Ciuc Depression
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolicke hills
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Polana
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Pohorje
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Cerdaña
Spain Degaña-Hermo
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Muniellos
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Riaño
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Craigmore Wood
United Kingdom Darnaway and Lethen Forest
United Kingdom Glen Tanar
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Morangie Forest
United Kingdom Novar

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Tetrao urogallus. Downloaded from on 22/07/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/07/2018.