LC
Western Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000-5499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 666,000-1,060,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 1,330,000-2,110,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,325,000-5,275,000 mature individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 3,000,000-5,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be declining owing to habitat destruction and alteration. Considerable range contraction has occurred in the east and west of the species's range, resulting in local extinctions (Madge and McGowan 2002). In Europe the population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extinct Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom R Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Daudzeva fishponds and Aklais bog
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Kočevsko
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Janów forests
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Augustów forest
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Pinezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Spain Fresser-Setcases
Spain Cerdaña
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Degaña-Hermo
Spain Muniellos
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Riaño
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Cirque de Gavarnie
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Gorges de la Frau et Belestat
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Haut Giffre
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Glen Tanar
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Ballochbuie
United Kingdom Coilacriech
United Kingdom Forest of Birse
United Kingdom Anagach Wood
United Kingdom Darnaway and Lethen Forest
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Giulie Pre-Alps
Italy Dolomites
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Norway Havmyran
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Uhlstädt heathlands
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wurzelbergfarmde
Germany Assberg-Hasenleite
Germany Meura heathlands
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Middle-eastern Black Forest
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Germany Simonswald-Rohrhardsberg
Germany Stromberg
Croatia Mt Dinara
Montenegro Durmitor
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa
Estonia Tudu
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Parika
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ioninsky peatbog
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Dunika bog
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Ziemupe
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Ovisi
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Rakupe and Pace
Latvia Stompaku bogs
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Mezole
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Lithuania Geledne forest
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Persenk
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Lagorai mountains
Austria Karwendel
United Kingdom Craigmore Wood
United Kingdom Morangie Forest
United Kingdom Novar
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Sweden Muddus
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Pohorje
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Julijci
Poland Solska Forest
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Poľana
Slovakia Tatry
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Germany Adelegg
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Germany Riedforst near Melsungen
Germany Upper Harz mountains
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Ciuc Depression
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Ceahlă Mountains
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Poprad Site
Lithuania Pertakas Ornithological Reserve
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Karaviskes forest
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Roztocze
Slovenia Trnovski gozd
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Karula
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Misso
Sweden Sjaunja
Serbia Gornji Visok and Vidlic
Serbia Mokra Gora

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Tetrao urogallus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.