VU
West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
2013 Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
2012 Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
2008 Vulnerable B2a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,260,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,999 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Increasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: A population estimate of 10,000-19,999 individuals is derived from L. G. Sorenson (in litt. 2007) and L. Mugica (in litt. 2007). This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. However, this should be revised upwards if more recent estimates from Cuba (L. Mugica in litt. 2011) are confirmed (a survey of hunters [Acosta-Cruz and Mugica-Valdés 2006]) estimated the Cuban population at c. 14,000 individuals with a further c. 6,000 individuals elsewhere in its range [D. Wege in litt. 2007]).

Trend justification: This species's population is increasing at a moderate rate, owing to conservation efforts across the region (L. Sorenson in litt. 2012).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant Yes
Dominica V Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Grenada V Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove
Antigua and Barbuda Codrington Lagoon and the Creek
Antigua and Barbuda Fitches Creek Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Hanson's Bay – Flashes
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Grog Pond
Bahamas Lee Stocking Island
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Bahamas San Andros Pond
Cayman Islands (to UK) Booby Pond Nature Reserve
Cayman Islands (to UK) Botanic Park and Salina Reserve
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland
Cayman Islands (to UK) Crown Wetlands
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Cuba Cayos Romano - Cruz - Megano Grande
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata
Cuba Delta del Cauto
Cuba Delta del Mayarí
Cuba Desembarco del Granma
Cuba Gibara
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Cuba Guanahacabibes
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay
Cuba Río Máximo
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo
Dominican Republic Bahía de las Calderas
Dominican Republic Enriquillo Lake
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Haiti Lagon-aux-Boeufs
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Jamaica Font Hill
Jamaica Hellshire Hills
Jamaica Negril
Jamaica Portland Ridge and Bight
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caño Tiburones
Puerto Rico (to USA) Cienaga Las Cucharillas
Puerto Rico (to USA) Humacao
Puerto Rico (to USA) Sierra Bermeja and Laguna Cartagena
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Middle Caicos Forest
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Dendrocygna arborea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.