Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata


ACAP. 2009. ACAP Species Assessment: Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata. Available at: #

Alava, J. J. ; Haase, B. 2011. Waterbird biodiversity and conservation threats in coastal Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. In: Grillo, O.; Venora, G. (ed.), Ecosystems Biodiversity, InTech.

Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J.C., Valenzuela, K., Arias-Schreiber, M. 2016. The intentional harvest of waved albatros Phoebastria irrorata by small-scale offshore fishermen from Salaverry port, Peru. Panamjas 11: 70-77.

Anderson, D. J. 2006. Basic science may save the Waved Albatross. Galapagos News: 8-9.

Anderson, D. J.; Cruz, F. 1998. Biology and management of the Waved Albatross at the Galápagos Islands. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 105-109. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, Australia.

Anderson, D. J.; Huyvaert, K. P.; Apanius, V.; Townsend, H.; Gillikin, C. L.; Hill, L. D.; Juola, F.; Porter, E. T.; Wood, D. R.; Lougheed, C.; Vargas, H. 2002. Population size and trends of the Waved albatross Phoebastria irrorata. Marine Ornithology 30: 63-69.

Anderson, D. J.; Huyvaert, K. P.; Awkerman, J. A.; Proaño, C. B.; Milstead, W. B.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Cruz, S.; Grace, J. K. 2008. Population status of the critically endangered Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata, 1999-2007. Endangered Species Research 5(2-3): 185-192.

Anderson, D. J.; Huyvaert, K. P.; Wood, D. R.; Gillikin, C. L.; Frost, B. J.; Mouritsen, H. 2003. At-sea distribution of waved albatrosses and the Galápagos Marine Reserve. Biological Conservation 110: 367-373.

Anderson, D.J., Fortner, S. 1988. Waved albatross egg neglect and associated mosquito ectoparasitism. Condor 90: 727-729.

Awkerman, J. A.; Huyvaert, K. P.; Mangel, J.; Shigueto, J. A.; Anderson, D. J. 2006. Incidental and intentional catch threatens Galápagos Waved Albatross. Biological Conservation 133(4): 483-489.

Awkerman, J. A.; Westbrock, M. A.; Huyvaert, K. P.; Anderson, D. J. 2007. Female-biased sex ratio arises after parental care in the sexually dimorphic Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata). The Auk 124(4): 1336-1346.

Awkerman, J.A., Cruz, S., Proaño, C., Huyvaert, K.P., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Baquero, A,, Wikelski, M., Anderson, D.J. 2014. Small range and distinct distribution in a satellite breeding colony of the critically endangered Waved Albatross. Journal of Ornithology 155(2): 367-378.

BirdLife International. 2004. Tracking ocean wanderers: the global distribution of albatrosses and petrels. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Carboneras, C. 1992. Diomedeidae (Albatrosses). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 198-215. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Croxall, J. P. and Gales, R. 1998. Assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. and Gales, R. (eds), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 46-65. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.

Douglas, H. D. 1998. Changes in the distribution and abundance of Waved Albatrosses at Isla Española, Galápagos islands, Ecuador. Condor 100: 737-740.

Edgar, G. J.; Banks, S.; Bensted-Smith, R.; Calvopiña, M.; A.; Garske, L. E.; Henderson, S.; Miller, K. A.; Salazar, S. 2008. Conservation of threatened species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve through identification and protection of marine key biodiversity areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18: 955-968.

Gibbs, J. P.; Woltz, H. W. 2010. A pilot survey of the central colony of the Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata on Española Island. Galapagos Research: 18-21.

Granizo, T. 2002. Libro rojo de las aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito.

Guillén, A.; Jahncke, J.; Goya, E. 2000. Seabird bycatch by small-scale longline fisheries in northern Peru: a first approach.

Harris, M. P. 1969. Age at breeding and other observations of the Waved Albatross (iDiomedea irrorata. Ibis 111: 97-98.

Harris, M.P. 1973. The Galápagos avifauna. Condor 75: 265-278.

Harris, M.P. 1979. Survival and ages of first breeding of Galapagos seabirds. Bird-banding 50: 56-61.

Hirschfeld, E. 2008. Rare Birds Yearbook 2009: the world's 190 most threatened birds. MagDig Media Ltd., Shrewsbury, UK.

Huyvaert, K. P.; Anderson, D.J.; Parker, P. G. 2006. Mate opportunity hypothesis and extrapair paternity in Waved Albatrosses (Phoebastria irrorata). The Auk 123: 524-536.

iménez-Uzcátegui, G., Carrión, V., Zabala, J., Buitrón, P., Milstead, B. 2007. Status of introduced vertebrates in Galápagos. . In: Galápagos Report 2006-2007. FCD, PNG & INGALA. Puerto Ayora, Ecuador: 136-141.

Jahncke, J. 2007. Action plan for Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata.

Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Harris, M.P., Sevilla, C., Huyvaert, K.P. 2016. Longevity records for the waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata. Marine Ornithology 40(133-134).

Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Mangel, J., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Anderson, D.J. 2006. Fishery bycatch of the waved albatros P. irrorata, a need for implementation of agreements. Galápagos Research 64(2): 7-9.

Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Sarzosa, S.M., Encalada, E., Rodríguez-Hidalgo, R., Celi-Erazo, M., Sevilla, C., Huyvaert, K.P. 2015. Gastrointestinal Parasites in the Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) of Galápagos. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(3): 784-786.

Mangel, J.C. 2012. Interactions of Peruvian small-scale fisheries with threatened marine vertebrate species.

Merlen, G. 1996. Scavenging waved albatross around the Galapagos Archipelago: at risk from longlines. Seabird Group Newsletter 74: 2-5.

Ramírez, J., Reyes, H. 2015. Evaluation of the high seas fisheries of pelagic fishes in the Galpapagos Marine Reserve. In Galápagos Report 2013-2014. GNPD, GCREG, CDF and GC. Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador: 118-124.

Rechten, C. 1986. Factors determining the laying data of the waved albatross (Diomedea irrorata). Ibis 182: 492-501.

Street, P.A. 2013. Abundance, survival and breeding probabilities of the critically endangered Waved Albatross. MSc thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 116 pp.

Tickell, W. I. N. 1996. Galápagos albatrosses at sea. Sea Swallow 45: 83-85.

Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.A. 2008. Critical problems for bird conservation in the Galápagos Islands. Cotinga: 22-27.

Further resources

Additional information is available on the distribution of the Waved Albatross from the Global Procellariiform Tracking Database (

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Phoebastria irrorata. Downloaded from on 25/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/06/2022.