VU
Wattled Crane Bugeranus carunculatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2acde+3cde+4acde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2acde+3cde+4acde
2016 Vulnerable A2acde+3cde; C1+2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable A2acde+3cde+4acde;C1+2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A2acde+3cde+4acde;C1+2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable A2a,c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4a,c,d,e; C1; C2a(ii)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 8159 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,270,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,380,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-6300 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: Its present world population has been variously estimated at 7,700 individuals (Pittman 2007) or fewer (Morrison and van der Spuy 2006, Motsumi et al. 2007), fewer than 8,000 individuals (Beilfuss et al. 2007) and 6,000-8,000 individuals (Beilfuss et al. 2003). More recent estimates though suggest that the population is currently >9,100, placed in the range 9,000-10,000. This increase though may not be a true increase in the population and further research to better understand the movements between the key flood plains in south-central Africa and the seasonal movements whereby cranes come together in large flocks in the drier season needs to be explored further (Morrison in press). This estimate roughly equates to 6,000-6,300 mature individuals.

Trend justification: When estimates from the 1980s are compared with those from 2006, the species is judged to have declined significantly (Morrison and van der Spuy 2006), indicating declines in the last three generations. The comparison of 2002 estimates with those from 1993 suggests marked declines in Mozambique, Zambia and possibly Botswana (Hancock et al. 2003). The total population was recently stated to be in decline in nine range states (Beilfuss et al. 2007). The overall rate of decline is estimated to be rapid.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extinct Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau V Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Cuelei
Angola Luando Strict Nature Reserve
Angola Mombolo (Missão da Namba)
Angola Mupa National Park
Botswana Linyanti swamp/Chobe river
Botswana Okavango Delta
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Upemba National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Kundelungu National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Lufira valley
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Ethiopia Finchaa and Chomen swamps
Ethiopia Berga floodplain
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands
Ethiopia Dilu Meda (Tefki)
Ethiopia Koffe swamp
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Ethiopia Boyo wetland
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park
Malawi Kasungu National Park
Mozambique Zambezi River Delta
Namibia Eastern Caprivi wetlands
Namibia Mahango Game Reserve and Kavango river
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve
Tanzania Usangu flats
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Umvoti Vlei
South Africa Hlatikulu
South Africa Karkloof Nature Reserve
South Africa Umgeni Vlei Nature Reserve
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Franklin Vlei
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Machile
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Lukanga Swamp
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia)
Zimbabwe Nyanga mountains
Zimbabwe Stapleford Forest
Zimbabwe Wabai Hill (Debshan Ranch)
Zimbabwe Driefontein grasslands
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Kalungwishi
Zambia Kasanka National Park
Zambia Simungoma
Zambia Minyanya Plain
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area
Zambia Lusenga Plain National Park
Zambia Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage
Zambia Sioma Ngwezi National Park
South Africa Ntsikeni Wetland reserve
Malawi Nyika National Park (Malawi)
South Africa Penny Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 2000 - 4140 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mimosa pigra Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Bugeranus carunculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/10/2020.