LC
Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 31,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-29999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,620,000-3,160,000 pairs, which equates to 3,230,000-6,320,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).  Europe forms c.25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 12,920,000-25,280,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.  The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Finland Mulklobb
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
France Bec de Crigne
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Vallée d'Asco
France Vallée de la Restonica
France Vallée du Verghello
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Bois du Chapitre
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Bois des Ayes
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Nockberge National Park
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Federseeried
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Bonne Anse
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Amankutan (Takhtakaracha Pass)
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Austria Karwendel
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Central section of the Kurama Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Awali River Valley
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 615 - 3200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anthus spinoletta. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.