EN
Visayan Hornbill Penelopides panini



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+4cd;C2a(i) A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i);D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2013 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2012 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A4c,d; C2a(i)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,500 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1200 medium estimated 1999
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19.4 - - -

Population justification: The population is thought to number at least 1,800 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,200 mature individuals. This estimate is derived from analyses of records and surveys by BirdLife International (2001). This estimate is now considerably out of date; if predicted rates of decline have precipitated the population may now fall below 1,000 individuals.

Trend justification: This species has apparently been extirpated from a number of islands and its decline is suspected to have continued very rapidly. No new information has been provided concerning the population size or rate of decline, but given that a proportion of remaining habitat is protected and the species is presumably now very rare, declines in the future are unlikely to be as rapid as in the recent past.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Central Panay mountains
Philippines Cuernos de Negros
Philippines Mount Kanla-on Natural Park
Philippines North Negros Natural Park
Philippines Northwest Panay Peninsula Natural Park
Philippines Southwestern Negros

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Penelopides panini. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019.