Visayan Hornbill Penelopides panini


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+4cd; C2a(i) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2cd+4cd; C2a(i)
2016 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2013 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2012 Endangered A2cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A4c,d; C2a(i)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,500 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1200 medium estimated 1999
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 17-30 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-60 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.4 - - -

Population justification: The population is thought to number at least 1,800 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,200 mature individuals. This estimate is derived from analyses of records and surveys by BirdLife International (2001). This estimate is now considerably out of date; if predicted rates of decline have precipitated the population may now fall below 1,000 individuals. Visayan hornbill density on Negros island was found to be 0.14 individuals per hectare of lowland forest (L. Pangutalan, in litt 2020).

Trend justification: This species has apparently been extirpated from a number of islands and its decline is suspected to have continued very rapidly. No new information has been provided concerning the population size or rate of decline, but given that a proportion of remaining habitat is protected and the species is presumably now very rare, declines in the future are unlikely to be as rapid as in the recent past.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines North-west Panay peninsula (Pandan)
Philippines Central Panay mountains
Philippines Mount Silay and Mount Mandalagan (Northern Negros)
Philippines Mount Kanla-on Natural Park
Philippines Southwestern Negros
Philippines Cuernos de Negros
Philippines Samar Island Natural Park
Philippines Siargao island
Philippines Basilan Natural Biotic Area
Philippines Polillo Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Altitude 500 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Penelopides panini. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021.