Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca


Alisauskas, R. T., Traylor, J. J., Swoboda, C. J., & Kehoe, F. P. 2004. Components of population growth rate for white–winged scoters in Saskatchewan, Canada. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27(1): 451-460.

Almquist, G., Strandmark, A. K., & Appelberg, M. 2010. Has the invasive round goby caused new links in Baltic food webs? Environmental Biology of Fishes 89(1): 79-93.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

BirdLife International. In prep. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Bregnballe, T.; Noer, H.; Christensen, T.K.; Clausen, P.; Asferg, T.; Fox, A.D.; Delany, S. 2006. Sustainable hunting of migratory waterbirds: the Danish approach. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 854-860. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Carboneras, C., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. 2020. Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca), version 1.0. In: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana (eds), Birds of the World, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Dagys, M. & Hearn, R. (compilers). 2018. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca) Western Siberia & Northern Europe/NW Europe population. Available at:

Dagys, M. & Žydelis, R. 2002. Bird bycatch in fishing nets in Lithuanian coastal waters in wintering season 2001-2002. Acta Zoologica Lituanica 12 (3): 276-282.

Dagys, M. 2017. Species Status Report for Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca. Western Siberia & Northern Europe/NW Europe Population.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S. & Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Dierschke, V., Furness, R. W. & Garthe, S. 2016. Seabirds and offshore wind farms in European waters: Avoidance and attraction. Biological Conservation 202: 59-68.

Drever, M. C., Clarck, R. G., Derksen, C., Slattery, S. M., Toose, P. & Nudds, T. D. 2011. Population vulnerability to climate change linked to timing of breeding in boreal ducks. Global Change biology 18(2): 480-492.

Field, R., Crawford, R., Enever, R., Linkowski, T., Martin, G., Morkūnas, J., Morkūnė, R., Rouxel, Y. & Oppel, S. 2019. High contrast panels and lights do not reduce bird bycatch in Baltic Sea gillnet fisheries. Global Ecology and Conservation 18: e00602.

Flint, V. E., Boehme, R. L., Kostin, Y. V. & Kuznetsov, A. A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Fransson, T., Kolehmainen, T., Kroon, C., Jansson, L., & Wenninger, T. 2010. EURING list of longevity records for European birds. European Union for Bird Ringing.

Garner, M., Lewington, I. & Rosenberg, G. 2004. Stejneger’s Scoter in the Western Palearctic and North America. Birding World 17: 337-347.

Garthe, S. & Hüppop, O. 2004. Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(4): 724-734.

Gorski, W., Jakuczun, B., Nitecki, C. & Petryna, A. 1977. Investigation of oil pollution on the Polish Baltic coast in 1974-1975. Przeglad Zoologiczny 21(1): 20-23.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Krivenko, V. G. & Vinogradov, V. G. 2008. Ptitsy vodnoi sredy i ritmy klimata Severnoi Evrazii [Birds of the Aquatic Environment and Climate Rhythms of Northern Eurasia].In: Vaisfeld, M.A. and Martynov, A.S. (eds), Moscow: Nauka.

Madge, S. & Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S. & Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nordström, M., Högmander, J., Nummelin, J., Laine, J., Laanetu, N. & Korpimäki, E. 2002. Variable responses of waterfowl breeding populations to long-term removal of introduced American mink. Ecography 25: 385-394.

Paposhvili, N. 2018. The status of Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca breeding in Georgia. Wildfowl 68: 183–192.

Skov, H., Heinänen, S., Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., Bzoma, S., Dagys, M., Durinck, J., Garthe, S., Grishanov, G.; Hario, M., Kieckbusch, J. J., Kube, J., Kuresoo, A., Larsson, K., Luigujoe, L., Meissner, W., Nehls, H.W., Nilsson, L., Petersen, I. K., Roos, M. M., Pihl, S., Sonntag, N., Stock, A., Stipniece, A. & Wahl, J. 2011. Waterbird Populations and Pressures in the Baltic Sea. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

Snow, D. W. & Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Steinacher M., Joos, F., Frolicher, T. L., Plattner, G. K., & Doney, S. C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6: 515-533.

UICN France, MNHN, LPO, SEOF & ONCFS. 2011. La Liste rouge des espèces menacées en France - Chapitre Oiseaux de France métropolitaine. Paris, France. 2020. Velvet Scoter. Sempach Available at: (Accessed: 03 September).

Voltzit, O. V. & Kalyakin, M. V. 2019. Database of the project on Atlas of Breeding Birds of European Russia. Available at:

Wetlands International. 2012. Waterbird Population Estimates: Fifth Edition. Summary Report. Edited by Taej Mundkur and Szabolcs Nagy. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Wetlands International. 2020. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at:

Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., Österblom, H., Vetemaa, M., Schirmeister, B., Stipniece, A., Dagys, M., van Eerden, M. & Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - an overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biological Conservation 142: 1269-1281.

Žydelis, R., Small, C. & French, G. 2013. The incidental catch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries: A global review. Biological Conservation 162: 76-88.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

IUCN SSC Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Melanitta fusca. Downloaded from on 14/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/04/2021.