VU
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2abcde+3cde+4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2abcde+3cde+4bcde
2015 Vulnerable A2abcde+3cde+4bcde
2013 Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
2012 Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 1757 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,340,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.5 - - -

Population justification: Surveys in 2007-2009 put the wintering population in the Baltic Sea at c. 373,000 individuals (Skov et al. 2011), with perhaps a few thousand wintering along coasts elsewhere in Europe, and another c. 1,500 wintering in the Black Sea and Caucasus (Delany and Scott 2006). Its total population is now estimated at 450,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012).

Trend justification: Since surveys in 1992-1993, an apparent decline of c. 60% (3.7% annually) was detected in the Baltic Sea, with counts in 2007-2009 putting the wintering population at c. 373,000 individuals, down from c. 933,000 in 1992-1993 (Skov et al. 2011). Extrapolation of the data implied that this was equivalent to a decline of c.77% over the past three generations, estimated at 23 years (based on a generation length of c. 7.5 years [BirdLife International unpubl. data]). The Baltic Sea is the most important wintering area in the world for this species, holding c.93% of the global population in 1992-1993. It seemed unlikely that the proportion of the total north-west European wintering population present in the Baltic has dropped from 93% to 37% (see Skov et al. 2011), thus a very rapid decline had probably taken place. This is supported by reports of declines elsewhere in its range. Whilst a very rapid decline was projected over the next three generations, new data compiled for the 2015 European Red List of Birds shows that the decline in the European population has now slowed to 30-49% over three generations (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Denmark Rønne Banke
Finland Shallowbanks of Uusikaupunki archipelago
Norway Altaelvmunningen
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Gaulosen
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Været

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Melanitta fusca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.