EN
Usambara Akalat Sheppardia montana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2007 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 1,200 km2 medium
Area of Occupancy (breeding/resident) 844 km2
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals poor estimated 2021
Population trend decreasing medium estimated -
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-25% - - -
Generation length 3.3 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-20 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: In c.1980, the total population was conservatively estimated at 28,000 individuals, based on a population density of 2-3 birds/ha (van der Willigen and Lovett 1981). Neate-Clegg et al. (2021) estimate that between c.1980-2019, the species declined by approximately 60% based on a comparison of repeated mist-net surveys. Therefore, the population may now equal 11,200 individuals, roughly equating to 7,466 mature individuals. The global population is therefore placed in the band of 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of the species's forest habitat through the encroachment of agriculture and wood extraction, and habitat shifting due to climate change. Neate-Clegg et al. (2021) estimate that the species has declined by 60% between c.1980-2019. Habitat shifting is likely to continue affecting the species in the future, but the resulting likely rate of decline has not been quantified.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Tanzania extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Tanzania West Usambara Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1600 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Sheppardia montana. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/usambara-akalat-sheppardia-montana on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 22/02/2024.