CR
Urrao Antpitta Grallaria fenwickorum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Barrera, L. F., Bartels, A.; Fundación ProAves de Colombia. 2010. A new species of antpitta (family Grallariidae) from the Colibrí del Sol Bird Reserve, Colombia. Conservación Colombiana 13: 8-24.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2011 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii); C2a(ii)
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,200 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 90-94 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -

Population justification: The known population numbers only 24 territories; however, an extrapolation of habitat preferences across the reserve and adjacent suitable areas, based on contour maps of the eastern and south-eastern slopes of the Páramo del Sol massif, gives an estimated known range size of potentially only 5.8 km2 and thus a cautious estimate of 57-156 territories. Each territory refers to a singing adult male, so this figure does not necessarily translate to an estimate of the number of pairs, and hence there are estimated to be fewer than 250 mature individuals, with the population placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals. This equates to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification: The species's population is considered to be undergoing a decline owing to ongoing forest clearance, primarily for agricultural expansion.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Páramo Urrao
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 2500 - 3300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Grallaria fenwickorum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/09/2022.