Ural Owl Strix uralensis


Taxonomic source(s)
Cheng Tso-hsin. 1987. A synopsis of the avifauna of China. Paul Parey Scientific Publishers, Hamburg and Berlin.
Cheng Tso-hsin. 1994. A complete checklist of species and subspecies of Chinese birds. Science Press, Beijing.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 640000-1052000 poor estimated 2021
Population trend stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 80,300-132,000 pairs, which equates to160,000-263,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 640,000-1,052,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in part due to the provision of thousands of nest boxes in some areas to replace dead-wood habitat lost during forestry operations (del Hoyo et al. 1999). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International in prep.).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Estonia extant native yes
Finland extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
North Korea extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Mt Bilogora and Kalnik
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Japan Mount Taisetsu
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Lithuania Birzai forest
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Montenegro Kovač, Gradina and Crni Vrh
Montenegro Ljubišnja
Montenegro Piva
Norway Reisa
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Solska Forest
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Cozia - Buila - Vânturariţa
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Grădiştea Muncelului
Romania Igniş Mountains - Creasta Cocoşului
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kileinoye bog
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Serbia Cemerno
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Golija
Serbia Homolje
Serbia Tara mountain
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 450 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Bubo bubo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Strix uralensis. Downloaded from on 10/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/06/2023.