EN
Udzungwa Forest-partridge Xenoperdix udzungwensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii) B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)
2016 Endangered B1ab(v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(v)
2007 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,400 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 190
Number of locations 3 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000-2700 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-5 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-5 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.43 - - -

Population justification: Dinesen et al. (2001) estimate the population to be 3,700 individuals based on the species' range and density in the Ndundulu forest. Butynski and Ehardt (2003) have suggested that this estimate may be too high as in other parts of its range it appears significantly less common. The population may be best estimated in the range 3,000-4,000 individuals (L. Hansen in litt. 2007), roughly equating to 2,000-2,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population has been thought to be stable, with large fluctuations between years (L. Hansen in litt. 2007). However, due to habitat loss and degradation, as well as the additional pressure of hunting, the overall trend is suspected to be decreasing. Deforestation rates within the range have been low over the past three generations (13.29 years), amounting to <5% (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). Population declines are therefore suspected to not exceed 5% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Tanzania N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Tanzania Udzungwa National Park
Tanzania Rubeho Mountains
Tanzania Udzungwa Mountains
Tanzania Udzungwa Mountain Range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1300 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Xenoperdix udzungwensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2022.