LC
Tytler's Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus tytleri



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is uncertain but, in the absence of any critical threats capable of driving a population decline, is suspected to be stable and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size unknown but given the density of congeners and the large area of suitable habitat in its range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as scarce or locally common (del Hoyo et al. 2006).

Trend justification
Much uncertainty. Remote sensing data (Global Forest Watch [2021], using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein) indicate that on this species' remote breeding grounds, forest loss has occurred at a negligible rate over the past 20 years. In its non-breeding range, forest loss has also been slow (equivalent to 2% over the past 10 years) and as such a continuing decline in mature individuals cannot be inferred. However, there are reports of increasing anthropogenic pressures in its breeding range in response to increasing human and livestock populations (Arun P. Singh in litt. 2022, J. Eaton in litt. 2022), although data from India between 2006-2007 and 2019 suggest there has been no decline (Arun P. Singh in litt. 2022).

Distribution and population

Phylloscopus tytleri breeds in the western Himalaya from Nuristan in extreme north-east Afghanistan, to the Kaghan Valley and Gilgit areas in northern Pakistan, and east through Kashmir in north-west India. Evidence of breeding from further east was originally considered inconclusive (e.g. see Rasmussen and Anderton 2012), however was confirmed by Sharma (2021) and the species is now know to occur in Hamachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It passes through Nepal in small numbers during migration and winters mainly in the Western Ghats and Deccan hillocks of Peninsular India (Praveen 2007). It is scarce to locally common in Pakistan and Kashmir, rare in Nepal, and infrequently recorded in its wintering range, partly due to identification difficulties.

Ecology

During the breeding season, this species inhabits coniferous forest, as well as subalpine dwarf willows and birches, at c.2,400-3600 m. In winter, it prefers shola forest in the Western Ghats, and frequents altitudes above c.900 m in the Deccan hillocks, where there is suitable tree cover (Praveen 2007, Rasmussen and Anderton 2012).

Threats

In its breeding range, forests are under constant threat from timber extraction, excessive cutting for fuelwood and animal fodder, livestock grazing and burning. In its wintering range, increasing encroachment into forests, livestock grazing, hydroelectric power development, road-building and the harvesting of fuelwood and huge quantities of forest products such as bamboo and canes are causing reductions in forest cover in the Western Ghats.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None known, but occurs in numerous protected areas both in the breeding and non-breeding season.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the breeding range to assess population trends. Conduct wider surveys in areas surrounding known winter sites to determine the full extent of the winter range. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation in both winter and summer ranges.
Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites on both breeding and wintering grounds, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Berryman, A.

Contributors
Benstead, P., Eaton, J., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N. & Singh, A.P.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Phylloscopus tytleri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022.