LC
Two-barred Crossbill Loxia leucoptera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 47,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 55,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-99999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,500,000-4,260,000 pairs, which equates to 3,000,000-8,510,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 30,000,000-85,100,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-67.8% decline over 40 years, equating to a -24.7% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria V Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bulgaria V Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Netherlands V Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant Yes
Romania V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Loxia leucoptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2019.