Two-barred Crossbill Loxia leucoptera


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 47,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 55,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-99999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,500,000-4,260,000 pairs, which equates to 3,000,000-8,510,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 30,000,000-85,100,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-67.8% decline over 40 years, equating to a -24.7% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria V Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bulgaria V Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Netherlands V Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant Yes
Romania V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Litokaira
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Luosto
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Sweden Sjaunja
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Russia (European) Central Forest Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Loxia leucoptera. Downloaded from on 07/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/07/2022.