Turquoise Cotinga Cotinga ridgwayi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,100 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 10,672
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 1250-2820 poor inferred 2021
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2016-2027
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 1-19 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified. Assuming that the species occurs at a similar density as congeners (C. cayana and C. cotinga in French Guiana: 2-4.5 individuals/km2; Santini et al. 2018), and, to account for its rarity, further assuming that only 10% of its mapped range is occupied, the population may number 1,880-4,230 individuals. This roughly equates to 1,250-2,820 mature individuals.
The subpopulation structure has not been investigated. Based on observational records (per eBird 2021) it is tentatively assumed that all individuals belong to the same subpopulation.

Trend justification: There are no new data on population trends. The species is inferred to be undergoing a continuing decline, which has led to its disappearing from previously occupied sites; there are no records from large parts of its range in Panama since 2013. Declines are thought to be caused by ongoing habitat loss (Snow and Sharpe 2020).
Over three generations (11.1 years; Bird et al. 2020), cover within the range is lost at a rate of 4% (Global Forest Watch 2021,using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The species depends on a dense canopy layer (Snow and Sharpe 2020) and as such it is conceivable that population declines are steeper than the rate of forest loss. Tentatively, the population decline is here placed in the band 1-19% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Costa Rica extant native yes
Panama extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Panama Santa Clara
Costa Rica Fila Costeña
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
Panama El Chorogo-Palo Blanco
Panama Quebrada Mellicita-Charco Azul
Costa Rica Los Santos, La Amistad Pacífico

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 1850 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Cotinga ridgwayi. Downloaded from on 01/10/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/10/2023.