LC
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus



References

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Carboneras, C. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Cong, P., Cao, L., Fox, A.D., Barter, M., Rees, E.C., Jiang, Y., Ji, W., Zhu, W. and Song, G. 2011. Changes in Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii distribution and abundance in the Yangtze River floodplain. Bird Conservation International 21(2): 260-265.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Grishanov, D. 2006. Conservation problems of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds and their habitats in the Kaliningrad region of Russia. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 356. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 1: general chapters; species accounts (Anhima to Salvadorina). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nagy, S., Petkov, N., Rees, E., Solokha, A., Hilton, G., Beekman, J. and Nolet, B. 2012. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Northwest European Population of Bewick’s Swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii). AEWA Technical Series No. 44. Bonn, Germany.

Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Thomas, C. M.; Mensik, J. G.; Feldheim, C. L. 2001. Effects of tillage on lead shot distribution in wetland sediments. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(1): 40-46.

Wetlands International. 2016. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Swan Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cygnus columbianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2019.