Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 70,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2016
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 317,000-336,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The breeding population in Europe is estimated at 5,000-6,000 pairs, which equates to 10,000-12,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in China and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2016). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the breeding and wintering population is estimated and projected to be decreasing by 50-79% between 2000, when declines are estimated to have begun, and 2038 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Krekengebied
Canada Aylmer Wildlife Management Area
Canada Beaver Lake
Canada Big Lake
Canada Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Lesser Slave Lake PP
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Lower Mackenzie River Islands
Canada Luck Lake
Canada M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh
Canada Mackenzie River Delta
Canada Mills Lake
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area
Canada Pelican Lake
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Radisson Lake
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Reed Lake
Canada South Shore Great Slave Lake (Slave River Delta to Taltson Bay)
Canada Thedford Flats
Canada Tobin Lake
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Skjern Å
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
France Camargue
France Etang de Lindre
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Mildenitz Seen, Gägelower See, Uphaler See
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Warnow with Göwe and Mildenitz
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Warder See
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Japan Hachirogata
Japan Hasama river
Japan Kyu-Osatsunuma
Japan Lake Fukushimagata
Japan Lake Hyoko
Japan Lake Inawashiro
Japan Lake Koetoi-Onuma
Japan Lake Kuccharo
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Japan Lake Sakata
Japan Lake Toyanogata
Japan Lake Utonai, Yufutu plain
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin
Japan Mogamigawa estuary
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Netherlands Arkemheen
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Netherlands De Wilck
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Lake Drontermeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer
Netherlands Uiterwaarden Zwarte Water & Vecht
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Zuidlaardermeergebied
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part)
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kanin peninsula (watershed of Yazhma and Nyes' rivers)
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay)
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
South Korea Junam reservoir
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Walmore Common
USA Alligator River Lowlands
USA Bear River Bay UT02
USA Central Yukon - Kuskokwim
USA Chowan River Bottomlands
USA Currituck Marshes - Pine Island
USA Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge
USA Lake Mattamuskeet - Swan Quarter
USA Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area
USA Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge
USA Pungo - Pocosin Lakes
USA Roanoke River Bottomlands
USA Saginaw Bay
USA Southern Dorchester County
USA Upper Naknek River

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cygnus columbianus. Downloaded from on 14/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/12/2019.