Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 70,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2016
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 317,000-336,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The breeding population in Europe is estimated at 5,000-6,000 pairs, which equates to 10,000-12,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in China and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2016). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the breeding and wintering population is estimated and projected to be decreasing by 50-79% between 2000, when declines are estimated to have begun, and 2038 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Hullo and Sviby bays
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Pärnu bay
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Paldiski bay
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Kallaste-Kodavere coast
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Pape
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Ireland Stabannan-Braganstown
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Durnesh Lough
Ireland Sheskinmore Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Cahore marshes
Ireland Upper Barrow flood-plain
Ireland Lough Foyle
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Tysslingen
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer
Netherlands Arkemheen
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Netherlands De Wilck
Netherlands Uiterwaarden Zwarte Water & Vecht
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Zoommeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Netherlands Lake Drontermeer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Zuidlaardermeergebied
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Polder Zeevang
Netherlands Donkse Laagten
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Biesbosch
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Delta of River Severnaya Dvina
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kanin peninsula (watershed of Yazhma and Nyes' rivers)
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay)
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Domaine d'Orx
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Plaine du Forez
France Etangs d'Argonne
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Poland Slowinska Site
Greenland (to Denmark) Itsako
Denmark Skjern Å
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Bolle and Try meadows
Denmark Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Lewitz
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Alfsee
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Heerter See
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Warder See
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Estonia Eru bay
Estonia Mustvee-Omedu coast
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
South Korea Junam reservoir
Japan Hasama river
Japan Hachirogata
Japan Mogamigawa estuary
Japan Lake Koetoi-Onuma
Japan Lake Kuccharo
Japan Kyu-Osatsunuma
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin
Japan Lake Inawashiro
Japan Lake Sakata
Japan Lake Toyanogata
Japan Lake Hyoko
Japan Lake Fukushimagata
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Japan Lake Utonai, Yufutu plain
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part)
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Uzava lowland
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Canada Whitford and Rush Lakes
Canada Cardinal Lake
Canada Lesser Slave Lake PP
Canada Big Lake
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Grande Prairie - Trumpeter Swan IBA
Canada Frank Lake (north)
Canada South Thompson River
Canada Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area
Canada Tachick and Nulki Lakes
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area
Canada Seal River Estuary
Canada Whitewater Lake
Canada Mackenzie River Delta
Canada Kugaluk River
Canada Anderson River Delta
Canada Lower Mackenzie River Islands
Canada Brackett Lake
Canada Mills Lake
Canada Beaver Lake
Canada North Arm, Great Slave Lake
Canada South Shore Great Slave Lake (Slave River Delta to Taltson Bay)
Canada Coats Island/Cape Pembroke
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Point Pelee
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Aylmer Wildlife Management Area
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Thedford Flats
Canada Wolfe Island
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Luck Lake
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Reed Lake
Canada Pelican Lake
Canada Kutawagan Lake
Canada Blackstrap Coulee
Canada Radisson Lake
Canada Tobin Lake
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Canada Nisultin River Delta
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island)
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Canada M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh
Canada Tagish Narrows
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Insko Site
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Netherlands Fochteloërveen
Netherlands Bargerveen
Netherlands De Wieden
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Burdur Lake
Netherlands Dwingelderveld
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Germany Hattstedt marshes
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Kudensee
USA Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge
USA Pungo - Pocosin Lakes
USA Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge
USA Central Yukon - Kuskokwim
USA Bear River Bay UT02
USA Saginaw Bay
USA Upper Naknek River
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Selenter See
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Warnow with Göwe and Mildenitz
Germany Mildenitz Seen, Gägelower See, Uphaler See
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Wetterau
United Kingdom The Wash
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Hovvig
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Russia (Asian) Troitskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
USA Alligator River Lowlands
USA Chowan River Bottomlands
USA Currituck Marshes - Pine Island
USA Roanoke River Bottomlands
USA Lake Mattamuskeet - Swan Quarter
USA Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area
USA Southern Dorchester County
Denmark Lindet Skov, Hønning Plantage, Lovrup Skov and Skrøp
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Kunda
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Greece Evros delta
Netherlands Westerwolde
Netherlands Vughtse Gement
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Krimpenerwaard
Netherlands Slagharen - de Krim
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cygnus columbianus. Downloaded from on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2020.