LC
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 92,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,600,000-2,900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 551,000-742,000 pairs, which equates to 1,100,000-1,480,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). The European population trend is also thought to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Red Lake
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Denmark Furesø and Farum Sø
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Tystrup-Bavelse Søerne
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Egypt Lake Nasser
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Oulu region wetlands
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
Germany Ammersee
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Schlei
Germany Selenter See
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Lake Mikri Prespa and Lake Megali Prespa
Hungary Lake Balaton
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area
India Kanjli Lake
India Mangal Jodi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Japan Lake Shinjiko
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Mangla Lake
Philippines Lake Naujan National Park
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Romania Black Sea
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Taman'
Serbia Derdap gorge
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Geumho-ho lake
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Blekinge Archipelago
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Coastal area of Torö – Muskö
Sweden Kalmar – Mönsterås
Sweden Sandemar
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: Corcelettes-Vaumarcus
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Syria Bahrat Homs
Turkey Eğirdir Lake
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Turkmenistan Garadashly - Ekerem
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aythya fuligula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2019.