Tucuman Amazon Amazona tucumana


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable A2bcd
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2011 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency high
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 207,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 medium estimated 2010
Population trend decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-10 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: In 2004, surveys recorded 6,015 individuals in Argentina (Rivera et al. 2007), while in 2006-2007 1,643 individuals were counted in Bolivia (Rivera et al. 2009). The total population is thus placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. A precise quantification of the current population size is urgently required.

Trend justification: Survey results, observations on habitat loss and the species's local occurrence, and data on capture and trade show that the population is in decline (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua 2009, L. Rivera in litt. 2011, MAyDS & AA 2017). The species's genetic variability was found to be low, which may be a consequence of a bottleneck and population decline in the past (Rocha et al. 2014).
Trapping as the main driver of the decline has reduced considerably since the species was included on CITES Appendix I in 1990, but is still ongoing particularly in Bolivia (L. Rivera in litt. 2004, Rivera et al. 2009, Pires et al. 2016). However, the largest roost in Argentina appears to have been stable since 2016 (L. Rivera and N. Politi in litt. 2020); while the population may start to recover in parts of the range declines are likely still ongoing in other parts due to ongoing trapping and habitat loss (Pires et al. 2016, Collar et al. 2020). Declines are tentatively placed in the band 30-49% over the past three generations (see MAyDS & AA 2017), but should the species continue to stabilise and recover the rate of decline may slow down in the near future.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina extant native yes
Bolivia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Abra Grande
Argentina Acambuco
Argentina Alto Calilegua
Argentina Cerro Negro de San Antonio
Argentina Cuesta de las Higuerillas
Argentina Cuesta del Clavillo
Argentina Cuesta del Obispo
Argentina El Fuerte y Santa Clara
Argentina Finca Las Costas/Cordón Lesser
Argentina Fincas Santiago y San Andrés
Argentina La Cornisa
Argentina Lagunas San Miguel y El Sauce
Argentina Lotes 32 y 33, Maíz Gordo
Argentina Palomitas y Ebro
Argentina Pampichuela
Argentina Parque Nacional Baritú
Argentina Parque Nacional Calilegua
Argentina Parque Nacional Campo de los Alisos
Argentina Parque Nacional El Rey
Argentina Parque Provincial La Florida
Argentina Parque Provincial Laguna Pintascayoc
Argentina Parque Provincial Los Ñuñorcos y Reserva Natural Quebrada del Portugués
Argentina Quebrada del Toro
Argentina Reserva Natural Las Lancitas
Argentina Reserva Provincial Santa Ana
Argentina Río Los Sosa
Argentina Río Santa María
Argentina San Francisco-Río Jordan
Argentina Santa Victoria, Cañani y Cayotal
Argentina Sierra de Ambato
Argentina Sierra de San Javier
Argentina Sierra de Zapla
Argentina Sierra Rosario de la Frontera
Argentina Sierras de Puesto Viejo
Argentina Tiraxi y Las Capillas
Argentina Trancas
Argentina Yala
Bolivia Reserva Nacional de Flora y Fauna Tariquía
Bolivia Serranía de Aguarague

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major breeding
Altitude 1600 - 2600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Amazona tucumana. Downloaded from on 05/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/06/2023.