Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni


Taxonomic note
Puffinus lherminieri (incorporating baroli), P. bannermani, P. persicus, P. subalaris and P. bailloni (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. lherminieri and baroli was subsumed under P. assimilis, following Brooke (2004), before which P. bannermani and P. persicus where split following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 94,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown 0
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 22.3 - - -

Population justification: The total population has not been quantified. Subspecies P. b. dichrous is estimated to number 1,000-10,000 pairs on the Line Islands and 10,000-100,000 pairs on the Phoenix Islands, with the nominate subspecies thought to number 3,000-5,000 pairs on Reunion and fewer than 100 individuals on Europa (reviewed by Brooke 2004). Nevertheless, there are thought to be many more breeding colonies on other islands in the Pacific.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Cook Islands U Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia U Extant
Israel V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Madagascar U Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands U Extant
Mauritius U Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mozambique U Extant
Nauru N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines U Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) U Extant
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Comoros Mont Mlédjélé (Mwali highlands)
Réunion (to France) Grand Bénard - Tapcal
Réunion (to France) Plaine des Chicots - Plaine d'Affouches
Réunion (to France) Mouth of the Cirque de Salazie
Réunion (to France) Rivière des Marsouins - Grand Etang
Réunion (to France) Grand Bassin - Le Dimitile
Réunion (to France) Rivière des Remparts - Rivière Langevin
Seychelles Aride Island Special Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Faror islands
Oman Musandam islands
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Masirah island
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Jazirat Hino
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Zubayr
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Yemen Ra's Fartak
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Ecuador Puerto Ayora
Ecuador Isla Floreana
Ecuador Isla Española
Ecuador Isla San Cristóbal
British Indian Ocean Territory North Brother, Chagos Bank
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela
Fiji Wailevu/Dreketi Highlands
Fiji Greater Tomaniivi
Fiji Rairaimatuku Highlands
Fiji Sovi Basin
Fiji Viti Levu Southern Highlands
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island
Palau Rock Islands
Cook Islands Mangaia
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
French Polynesia Vallée d'Opunohu
French Polynesia Ua Huka
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Pou
French Polynesia Manui, Kamaka, Makaroa
French Polynesia Crêtes et pentes du Mont Marau
French Polynesia Pentes du mont Hiro de Raivavae
Tonga Niuafo'ou
Tonga Late
Tonga 'Ata Island
Micronesia, Federated States of Pohnpei Watershed Forest Reserve
Micronesia, Federated States of Mount Winipot / Tol South
Kiribati McKean Island
Kiribati Nikumaroro (Gardner Island)
Kiribati Enderbury Island
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Vanuatu Tongoa and Ambae
French Polynesia Moorea
French Polynesia Hatu iti
Ecuador Galápagos Colony Extensions - Marine
Réunion (to France) Grand Bénard - Tapcal - Marine
Comoros Mwali highlands - Marine
Seychelles Aride island - Marine
Oman Jazirat Hino / Juzor al Halaaniyaat - Marine
British Indian Ocean Territory Danger Island, Chagos Bank - Marine
Tonga Late Marine
Kiribati McKean Island Marine
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
French Polynesia Marquesas Marin
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Tutuila
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Ta'u
American Samoa West Tutuila
Vanuatu Mount Tukusmera

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Pisonia grandis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Puffinus bailloni. Downloaded from on 26/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2020.