LC
Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,100,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 40,200,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000000-159999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 26,900,000-38,100,000 pairs, which equates to 53,800,000-76,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).  Europe forms c.50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 107,000,000-153,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar V Extant
Namibia V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea V Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Poland Pisz forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Marais de Sacy
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Orchard landscape between Hohenstaufen and Teck in the mid-Albvorland
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh southward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Freiwald
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Karwendel
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Stromberg
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Vorland of the Mittlere Schwäbische Alb
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Anthus trivialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021.