Tooth-billed Pigeon Didunculus strigirostris


Atherton, J. and Jefferies, B. 2012. Rapid BiodiversityAssessment of Upland Savai'i, Samoa. SPREP, Apia, Samoa.

Beichle, U. 1982. Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Systematik der Zahntaube Didunculus strigirostris (Jardine 1845). dissertation. Doctoral, Kiel:Christian-Albrechts Universitat.

Beichle, U. 1987. Lebensraum, Bestand und Nahrungsaufnahme der Zahntaube, Didunculus strigirostris. Journal für Ornithologie 128: 75-89.

Beichle, U. 1991. Status and acoustical demarcation of pigeons of Western Samoa. Notornis 38: 81-86.

Beichle, U. and Baumann, S. 2003. Die Landvoegel der Samoa-Inseln. TenDenZen 1-2: 1-156.

Blockstein, D. E. 1987. Preliminary report on the ecology and status of the Tooth-billed Pigeon or "Manumea" (Didunculus strigirostris) in Western Samoa.

Collar, N. J. 2015. Natural history and conservation biology of the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris): a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 21(3): 186-199.

Darwin Initiative. 2017a. Darwin Initiative Annual Report: Developing a conservation management plan for Samoa's little dodo- the Manumea or toothbilled-pigeon. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, UK.

Darwin Initiative. 2017b. Darwin Initiative Main/Post/D+ Project Half Year Report: Developing a conservation management plan for Samoa's little dodo- the Manumea or toothbilled-pigeon. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, UK.

Freifeld, H. B. 1999. Habitat relationships of forest birds on Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Journal of Biogeography 26: 1191-1213.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment (MNRE). 2006. Recovery plan for the Manumea or Tooth-billed Pigeon Didunculus strigirostris.

Serra G., Sherley G., Failahi S. A., Foliga, S. T., Uili, M., Enoka, F. and Suaesi, T. 2017. Traditional ecological knowledge of the Critically Endangered Tooth-billed Pigeon Didunculus strigirostris, endemic to Samoa. Bird Conservation International doi:10.1017/S0959270917000259: 23pp.

Serra, G. 2017. Review of implementation of manumea recovery plan 2006-2016. Available at: (Accessed: 21/05/2018).

Serra, G., Uili, M., Enoka, F. and Foliga, T. 2016. Biodiversity surveying of 4 KBAs in Samoa based on traditional ecological knowledge. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Apia, Samoa.

SPREP. 1999. Proceedings of the Polynesian Avifauna Conservation Workshop held in Rarotonga, 26-30 April 1999.

Stirnemann, R. L., Stirnemann, I. A., Abbot, D., Biggs, D. and Heinsohn, R. 2018. Interactive impacts of by-catch take and elite consumption of illegal wildlife. Biodiversity and Conservation 27(4): 931-946.

Tye, A. and Butler, D. J. 2013. Restoration of Nu’utele and Nu’ulua Islands (Aleipata Group), Samoa, through the management of introduced rats and ants. Biodiversity Conservation Lessons Learned Technical Series 13. Conservation International, Apia, Samoa.

Uili, M., Enoka, F., Male, F. and Anoitele, V. 2013. Conservation Leadership Program 2nd Progress Report - CLP Project ID 06141613 "Samoa's little Dodo - Saving the Manumea".

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Didunculus strigirostris. Downloaded from on 08/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/07/2020.