VU
Tongan Scrubfowl Megapodius pritchardii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable D1+2
2017 Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v)
2016 Endangered B1ab(v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 104
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Increasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification:

In the most comprehensive and robust population study on Niuafo’ou, Göth and Vogel (1995) used playback to estimate the global population to be 188-235 pairs. More recent surveys have only been brief and used different methods but only located 28-53+ birds (Butler 2014). Göth and Vogel (1995) recorded 187+ active burrows, but only 33 were found in 2012 (MLECCNR 2012) and 44 in 2014 (Butler 2014). On Fonualei Island, Watling (2004) recorded a minimum of 38 individuals, and estimated a population of 300-500. In 2012, Butler (2013) observed that birds were also abundant at another site in the north of the island, and estimated a population of 600-1000, assuming that all apparently suitable habitat had been occupied. Watling (2004) and (Butler 2013) recorded no birds on Late. Thus the population size may be best placed in the range 250-999 mature individuals (G. Dutson in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is tentatively considered to be increasing, as a result of estimated increases of the reintroduced population on Fonualei (Watling 2004, Butler 2013), despite the reported declines on Niuafo'ou (Goeth unpublished data, in Tilmouth 2010, Lloyd et al. 2011).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Tonga N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Tonga Fonualei
Tonga Niuafo'ou

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Geothermal Wetlands marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Megapodius pritchardii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2020.