NT
Tolima Dove Leptotila conoveri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2013 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 39,200 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 medium suspected 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: Previously, the population was estimated to number 4,200 individuals in total, based on density estimates of 3.6 individuals/km2 (Renjifo et al. 2014), which roughly equals 2,800 mature individuals. However, this may have been a underestimate, with the species known to have differentiating occupancy rates based on elevation (Escudero-Páez et al. 2018). Recent density estimates are as such higher at 20.6 individuals/km2, with a maximum density of 56 individuals/km2 recorded in the department of Tolima. Assuming that the species only occupies parts of its mapped range, the population may therefore number as high as 16,000-44,000 individuals, converted to 11,000-29,000 mature individuals. However, precautionarily assuming that population size is closer to the lower estimate, it may be tentatively placed in the band of 10,000-19,000 mature individuals. Based on the high degree of fragmentation of its habitat, it is also likely that the species forms several small, disjunct subpopulations.

Trend justification: The population is though to be undergoing a slow decline, mainly due to the loss and degradation of its habitat, but the rate of decline has not been quantified directly. Global Forest Watch (2020) measured the forest loss within this species’s range to be <5% over 3 generations (14.1 years; Bird et al. 2020), with the assumption that habitat loss is continuing at the same rate. Despite ready tolerance to degraded habitats and occurrence in agricultural areas, in parts of its range the species is additionally hunted for food (Renjifo et al. 2014). As a consequence, it is inferred that the species is declining at <10% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Cañón del Río Combeima
Colombia Cuenca del Río San Miguel
Colombia Cuenca del Río Toche
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Nevado del Huila
Colombia Reserva Natural Ibanasca
Colombia Reservas Comunitarias de Roncesvalles
Colombia Serranía de las Minas
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guácharos
Colombia Reserva Natural Meremberg

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1250 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Leptotila conoveri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/05/2022.