EN
Titicaca Grebe Rollandia microptera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acde+3cde+4acde A2acde+3cde+4acde; C1; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2016 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2012 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2008 Endangered A2a,c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4a,c,d,e
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2002 Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 706 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 69,200 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-60 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-60 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -

Population justification: Based on counts on Lake Titicaca in 2003 (Martinez et al. 2006) and adults counted elsewhere in the Titicaca watershed (Engblom et al. 2001), the population was estimated at around 1,600 mature individuals. On Lake Titicaca itself, 2,583 individuals of all ages were counted; combined with smaller numbers elsewhere in the watershed, this represents a higher population than previously assumed. In 2007, 1,254 individuals were counted in the wet season (H. Aranibar-Rojas in litt. 2007). The species is however thought to decline at 50-60% over three generations; thus the population may number c. 600 mature individuals in 2020. To account for uncertainty, the population size is here placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Surveys in the 1970s and 1980s led to population estimates of between 2,000-10,000 individuals, with at least 1,147 on Lake Umayo alone in 1986 (Engblom et al. 2001). Surveys in 2001 found just four individuals on Lake Umayo, and 156 adults on Lake Arapa, whereas 215 adults and 45 young were recorded from 16 lakes in the Peruvian range (Engblom et al. 2001). Counts during 1997 in Bolivia found a total of 100 individuals (Engblom et al. 2001). Further declines were indicated during a brief follow-up survey in 2003 (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), but surveys of Lake Titicaca in 2003 found a total of 2,583 individuals, which was thought likely to be an underestimate of the total population on the lake. In 2007 preliminary census data found 1,254 individuals in the wet season (H. Aranibar-Rojas in litt. 2007). A census on a small section of the Río Laka Jahuira (at Paso Julian) in 2004 found 138 mature individuals, and further surveys are needed along the entire eastern section of the river to confirm the size of this subpopulation (Konter 2006). In 2006, the total  population was estimated at 1,600 mature individuals (Martinez et al. 2006). Estimates suggest that the species declined by 15% between 2003 and 2005 (Asociación Armonia 2007). This equates to a decline of 50-60% over three generations. The greatest current threat to the species, bycatch in fishermen's gill-nets, is continuing.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bolivia Lago Poopó y Río Laka Jahuira
Bolivia Lago Titicaca (Sector Boliviano)
Peru Laguna Suytococha
Peru Laguna Umayo
Peru Ramis y Arapa (Lago Titicaca, sector Peruano)
Peru Laguna de Chacas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 3000 - 4300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Seepage from mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Rollandia microptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021.