LC
Tit-like Dacnis Xenodacnis parina



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common but patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996). Where it occurs it can be extremely abundant (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to the likelihood of ongoing habitat destruction.

Distribution and population

This species is found in the Andes of southern Peru.

Ecology

This species inhabits shrubbery, low woodland including Polylepis/ Gynoxys groves and forest borders, from just below the timberline to well above it. It has been recorded from 3,000 to 4,000 m altitude (Ridgely and Tudor 1989), and is apparently confined to areas where Gynoxys shrubs are present (Isler and Isler 1987). It is usually encountered singly or in pairs, and forages almost entirely by gleaning from the undersides of Gynoxys leaves, feeding on small insects and sugary secretions produced either by the insects or by the leaves (Isler and Isler 1987). It has also been observed feeding on nectar (Isler and Isler 1987). The nest is a tiny cup placed in a tree; fledglings have been found in May and July (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).

Threats

The widespread destruction of montane shrub and fragmentation of Polylepis woodlands through uncontrolled use of fire, firewood-collection, intense grazing (particularly with sheep and cattle), unsound agricultural techniques and afforestation with exotic tree species (especially Eucalyptus) presumably threatens this species (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996, Stattersfield et al. 1998).

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M. & Westrip, J.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Xenodacnis parina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2021.