Tickell's Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a small population size that is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, in line with habitat loss within its range. On this basis it is assessed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The area of suitable habitat predicted for the species in Thailand by Trisurat et al. (2013) was 1,864 km2, which, at the densities reported for this species of 2-5 individuals per km2 would result in an initial estimate of 3,700-9,300 individuals, assumed to equate to 2,479-6,231 mature individuals, rounded to 2,450-6,000 mature individuals. No more than an additional 500 are believed to be present in Myanmar (Lay Win in litt. 2020). As such, the population is placed in the band of 2,500-10,000 mature individuals. 

Data is urgently required on this species's population size. Given the dwindling area of suitable primary forest habitat within its range, its population size could be small.

Trend justification
The species is suspected to be undergoing a population reduction in the range of 10-20%, largely driven by the rate of forest loss recorded within the range of the species, with likely additional impacts from habitat degradation and loss due to selective logging, and opportunistic hunting. Global Forest Change data on tree cover loss up to 2019 indicate that, over three generations (17.4 years), approximately 8.8% of tree cover with >30% canopy cover was lost from within the species’s range (Global Forest Watch 2020). The species is dependent on large trees within intact forest, and within the range the area of forest has been reduced (Global Forest Watch 2020), large trees are selectively logged and numerous roads have been constructed within the past ten years in conjunction with increasing rates of agricultural encroachment, at least in Myanmar (Lay Win in litt. 2020). The species does not occur in cleared areas (Trisurat et al. 2013). However it is not a species targeted by hunters, although it will be opportunistically hunted (Lay Win in litt. 2020). From this, the population is inferred to be suffering a continuing decline.

Distribution and population

Anorrhinus tickelli is found in southern Myanmar (in mountainous areas of Tenasserim) and south-east Thailand (at Huai Kha Khaeng and historically south from Hue Nya Pla to Petchaburi River, with a recent sighting in Cumporn Province) (Kemp 1995). Generally uncommon, it has been considered most abundant on the Thai side of the peninsula ridge. However, there appears to be little suitable habitat remaining for the species in Thailand (Trisurat et al. 2013), it does not occur on the southern Thailand plains and has been described as 'endangered' elsewhere in the country.


This species inhabits dense evergreen and deciduous forest from foothills to 1,500 m, favouring the tallest primary forest, including stands of Hopea odorata.


Forest loss has been prevalent throughout the range as a result of commercial and subsistence logging, agricultural conversion and fires. Hunting and trapping may also be problems for this species.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys throughout the range in order to clarify current status. Repeat surveys and monitor populations at known sites in order to determine the magnitude of declines and rates of range contraction. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements and tolerance of secondary habitats. Assess potential risk from hunting and trapping. Grant protection to areas of suitable habitat to safeguard against logging and encroachment. Raise awareness of the species and its status in an effort to reduce potential hunting pressure.


Text account compilers
Martin, R., Patil, I., Datta, A.

Datta, A., Win, L. & Chimchome, V.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anorrhinus tickelli. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022.