NT
Tickell's Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 212,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-20 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-20 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-5 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The area of suitable habitat predicted for the species in Thailand by Trisurat et al. (2013) was 1,864 km2, which, at the densities reported for this species of 2-5 individuals per km2 would result in an initial estimate of 3,700-9,300 individuals, assumed to equate to 2,479-6,231 mature individuals, rounded to 2,450-6,000 mature individuals. No more than an additional 500 are believed to be present in Myanmar (Lay Win in litt. 2020). As such, the population is placed in the band of 2,500-10,000 mature individuals. 

Data is urgently required on this species's population size. Given the dwindling area of suitable primary forest habitat within its range, its population size could be small.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be undergoing a population reduction in the range of 10-20%, largely driven by the rate of forest loss recorded within the range of the species, with likely additional impacts from habitat degradation and loss due to selective logging, and opportunistic hunting. Global Forest Change data on tree cover loss up to 2019 indicate that, over three generations (17.4 years), approximately 8.8% of tree cover with >30% canopy cover was lost from within the species’s range (Global Forest Watch 2020). The species is dependent on large trees within intact forest, and within the range the area of forest has been reduced (Global Forest Watch 2020), large trees are selectively logged and numerous roads have been constructed within the past ten years in conjunction with increasing rates of agricultural encroachment, at least in Myanmar (Lay Win in litt. 2020). The species does not occur in cleared areas (Trisurat et al. 2013). However it is not a species targeted by hunters, although it will be opportunistically hunted (Lay Win in litt. 2020). From this, the population is inferred to be suffering a continuing decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Thailand Khao Yai

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anorrhinus tickelli. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022.