Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,200,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,050,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12000000-21999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,780,000-6,360,000 pairs, which equates to 7,550,000-12,700,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.60% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 12,600,000-21,200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Turkey N Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Hungary Upper Tisza
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Lake Östen
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Samarskaya Luka
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Woodlands of Western Pomerania, eastern range
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Sweden Bay of Rynninge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable passage
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Luscinia luscinia. Downloaded from on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/05/2022.