Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,200,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,050,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12000000-21999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,780,000-6,360,000 pairs, which equates to 7,550,000-12,700,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.60% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 12,600,000-21,200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant vagrant yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native
Bahrain extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant vagrant
Botswana extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native
Cyprus extant native
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Ethiopia extant native
Finland extant native yes
France extant vagrant
Germany extant native yes
Greece extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant vagrant
Israel extant native
Italy extant native
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant native
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant vagrant
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Libya extant vagrant
Lithuania extant native yes
Malawi extant native
Malta extant vagrant
Moldova extant native yes
Montenegro extant native
Mozambique extant native
Namibia extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
Nigeria extant vagrant
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant vagrant yes
Palestine extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native
Slovakia extant native yes
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
Sudan extant native
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant vagrant
Syria extant native yes
Tanzania extant native
Turkey extant native
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Uganda extant native
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
Uzbekistan extant native
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant native
Zimbabwe extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Woodlands of Western Pomerania, eastern range
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable passage
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Luscinia luscinia. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023.