Three-wattled Bellbird Procnias tricarunculatus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable C1
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 247,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 318,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3600-14000 poor estimated 2021
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 4 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.1 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been directly quantified. However, population densities are known for 24 species in the family of Cotingidae, all ranging from 0.25 to 1 individual per km2 (Santini et al. 2018). Assuming that this species occurs at the same density throughout its known breeding range, the population is preliminarily estimated at roughly 5,400-21,000 individuals, which equates to 3,600-14,000 mature individuals. In Costa Rica and Panama, the species is described as 'fairly common' (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989; Angehr and Dean 2010; Garrigues and Dean 2014).
Three-wattled Bellbird is thought to form four subpopulations (Brant et al. 2020). Under the preliminary assumption that these are of roughly equal size, each subpopulation may number 1,350-3,500 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a large, significant decline (Partners in Flight 2019). The rate of decline is thought to exceed 50% between 1970 and 2017 (Partners in Flight 2019, see also Panjabi et al. 2019). This equates to a decline of at least 20% over the last three generations (18.3 years) and is thus here placed in the band 20-29% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Costa Rica N Extant Yes Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant Yes Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Costa Rica Arenal-Monteverde
Panama San San Pond Sak Wetlands
Panama La Amistad International Park
Panama Santa Clara
Panama Volcán Barú National Park
Panama Fortuna Forest Reserve
Panama El Chorogo-Palo Blanco
Panama Santa Fé National Park
Panama Coiba National Park
Panama Cerro Hoya National Park
Panama General de División Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park
Panama Palo Seco Protection Forest
Panama Bocas del Toro Archipelago
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor
Costa Rica Central Volcanic Cordillera
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests
Costa Rica Fila Costeña
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
Nicaragua El Jaguar
Nicaragua Murra
Nicaragua Los Guatuzos
Costa Rica La Amistad Caribe
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands
Costa Rica Los Santos, La Amistad Pacífico
Costa Rica Maleku - Caño Negro
Costa Rica Nicoya Peninsula
Costa Rica Tárcoles, Carara and La Cangreja
Costa Rica Tilarán Highlands
Nicaragua Miraflor
Nicaragua Datanlí-El Diablo Hill
Nicaragua Apante Hill
Nicaragua Arenal Hill
Nicaragua Musun Hill
Nicaragua Peñas Blancas Massif
Nicaragua Quirragua Mountains and adjacent landscape
Nicaragua Maderas Volcano
Nicaragua Kilambe Hill
Nicaragua Esperanza Verde
Honduras Rio Platano
Honduras Tawahka
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca
Honduras Sierra de Agalta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1200 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 750 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Procnias tricarunculatus. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023.