LC
Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Picoides tridactylus and P. funebris (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. tridactylus following AOU (2003). P. tridactylus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split into P. tridactylus and P. dorsalis following AOU (2003), and prior to that all three taxa were lumped as P. tridactylus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 67,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000000-14999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 598,000-1,450,000 pairs, which equates to 1,200,000-2,900,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 6,000,000-14,500,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: Although declines occurred in parts of its European range from 1970-2000, it has been stable across much of its European range during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004), although the trend between 2000 and 2012 in Europe is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Birzai forest
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Lielais Kemeru bog
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Lielais and Pemmas bogs
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Kalnciems meadows and Odini fields
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Zvarde forest
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Abeli
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Pinezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Gorgany
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Haut Giffre
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Dolomites
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Chočské hills
Slovakia Riečnica
Slovakia Poľana
Slovakia Levočské hills
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Germany Simonswald-Rohrhardsberg
Croatia Mount Velebit
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Adelegg
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Canada Tadoussac
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Belarus Brycalavičskaja Pušča
Estonia Lahemaa
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Czechia Novohradské hory mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Salaca valley
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Austria Karwendel
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slonne Mountains
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Slovenia Pohorje
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Lithuania A complex of Rokantiskes, Bezdonys, Buzaraistis and neighbouring forests
Czechia Boletice
Lithuania Padauguva forest complex
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Poland Pieniny Mountains
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Ceahlă Mountains
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Poprad Site
Slovenia Karavanke
Slovenia Trnovski gozd
Norway Øvre Forra
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Misso
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Mokra Gora
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Zlatar

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 360 - 2700 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3350 m

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Picoides tridactylus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023.