LC
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 94,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.160,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 15,500-50,700 pairs, which equates to 30,900-101,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is declining. Some populations have unknown trends or are stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 19.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Argentina V Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Botswana V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Gabon V Extant
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant
Greece V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Mauritius V Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Japan Fujimae tidal flat
Japan Hakata bay
Japan Kumakawa estuary
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats
Japan Shirakawa estuary
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Oman Barr al Hikman
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Hampyeong Bay
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Muan tidal flat
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
Tanzania Mafia Island
Tanzania Rufiji Delta
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-South Coast

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/08/2019.