LC
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 14,600,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 94,400,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - estimated -
Generation length 6.4 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.160,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 15,500-50,700 pairs, which equates to 30,900-101,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is declining. Some populations have unknown trends or are stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 19.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Angola extant native
Argentina extant vagrant
Armenia extant native
Australia extant native
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes yes
Bangladesh extant native
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant vagrant
Botswana extant vagrant
British Indian Ocean Territory extant native
Brunei extant native
Bulgaria extant vagrant
Burundi extant vagrant
Cambodia extant native
Cameroon extant vagrant
Canada extant vagrant
China (mainland) extant native
Christmas Island (to Australia) extant vagrant
Comoros extant native
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native
Côte d'Ivoire extant vagrant
Cyprus extant vagrant
Czechia extant vagrant
Denmark extant vagrant
Djibouti extant native
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native
Eswatini extant vagrant
Ethiopia extant native
Fiji extant native yes yes
Finland extant native yes
France extant vagrant
Gabon extant vagrant
Gambia extant vagrant
Georgia extant native
Germany extant vagrant
Ghana extant vagrant
Greece extant vagrant
Guam (to USA) extant native yes
Hong Kong (China) extant native yes
Hungary extant vagrant
India extant native
Indonesia extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant vagrant
Israel extant native
Italy extant native
Japan extant native
Jordan extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant native
Kenya extant native
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native
Laos extant native
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Libya extant vagrant
Lithuania extant vagrant
Madagascar extant native
Malawi extant native
Malaysia extant native yes
Maldives extant vagrant
Mali extant vagrant
Malta extant vagrant
Mauritania extant vagrant
Mauritius extant vagrant
Mayotte (to France) extant native
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Moldova extant native
Mongolia extant native
Morocco extant vagrant
Mozambique extant native
Myanmar extant native
Namibia extant native
Nepal extant vagrant
Netherlands extant vagrant
New Caledonia (to France) extant vagrant
New Zealand extant native
Nigeria extant vagrant
North Korea extant native
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Norway extant vagrant
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palau extant native yes
Palestine extant vagrant yes
Papua New Guinea extant native
Philippines extant native
Poland extant vagrant
Qatar extant native yes yes
Réunion (to France) extant vagrant
Romania extant vagrant
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Rwanda extant vagrant
Saudi Arabia extant native yes yes
Seychelles extant native
Singapore extant native
Slovakia extant vagrant
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Korea extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
Sri Lanka extant native
Sudan extant native
Sweden extant vagrant
Switzerland extant vagrant
Syria extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant native
Tanzania extant native
Thailand extant native
Timor-Leste extant native yes yes
Togo extant native
Trinidad and Tobago extant vagrant
Tunisia extant vagrant
Türkiye extant native
Turkmenistan extant native
Uganda extant native
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native
Vietnam extant native
Yemen extant native yes yes
Zambia extant native
Zimbabwe extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Tanzania Mafia Island
Tanzania Rufiji Delta
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-South Coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Japan Kumakawa estuary
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats
Japan Hakata bay
Japan Shirakawa estuary
Japan Fujimae tidal flat
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Hampyeong Bay
South Korea Muan tidal flat
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
Russia (Asian) Forty Islands
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/terek-sandpiper-xenus-cinereus on 04/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 04/12/2023.