Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population is estimated to number c.165,000-1,255,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 110,000-850,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 58,100-167,000 pairs, which equates to 116,000-333,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include 10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and 1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species. The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
Behaviour This species is a full migrant, migrating on a broad front overland across the full width of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Adults leave their young in July before they are fully fledged and migrate south to the wintering grounds; juveniles then leave the breeding grounds in early-August (Snow and Perrins 1998). Some individuals also winter in Europe as far north as Britain, breeding between late-May and early-July on returning to the breeding range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species feeds singly or in groups of up to 30 individuals and migrates singly or in small parties, although between 100 and 250 individuals have been encountered at some European staging sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998).
Habitat Breeding This species breeds in arctic tundra, shrub tundra and forest tundra along flood-plains, although it avoids extremely cold conditions and exposed coasts (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). It is mainly found near coastal inlets, fjords, deltas, rivers or streams from sea level to 250 m, but also occurs up to 1,200 m inland on flat, clear ground with little vegetation, areas covered with short grass and interspersed with patches of scrub, areas with grasses, sedges or Empetrum, and scrub willow or birch thickets with sandy or gravelly stretches (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Both dry and wet areas are used, but habitats with elevated locations such as boulders or buildings are preferred because of their use as song perches (Johnsgard 1981). In Scandinavia the species also breeds near fishing huts and houses, and in industrial workings (Ronka 1996). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species inhabits inland freshwater wetlands such as flood-lands, irrigated fields, sewage farms, densely vegetated wetlands, ditches, muddy marshes and lake edges, and on the coast shows a strong preference for mudflats in sheltered inlets, estuaries and saltmarshes, whilst tending to avoid open and sandy beaches (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998).
Diet On the breeding grounds and in inland habitats the diet of this species consists primarily of insects and their larvae (especially beetles and Diptera such as craneflies and midges), as well as the occasional plant matter (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). On the coasts the species takes annelids, crustaceans (such as sand fleas) and small molluscs (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup on the ground in the open or amongst low vegetation, often at the base of small willows, junipers or other shrubs (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998).
This species is threatened by nest predation (Koivula and Ronka 1998, Ronka et al. 2006) from Common Gull Larus canus and Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres (Ronka et al. 2006), as well as from Hooded Crow Corvus corone cornix, weasel Mustela nivalis, American mink Mustela vison and fox Vulpes vulpes in Finland (Ronka 1996). It is also threatened in its Scandinavian breeding range by shrinkage and deterioration of suitable habitats (due to eutrophication and the overgrazing of shore meadows), and by increased human recreational disturbance due to the building up of breeding sites (trampling and disturbance often lead to increased hatchling predation and abandonment of nests) (Ronka 1996). The species is also susceptible to avian influenza and may therefore be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Recreation, pollution of wetland habitats, land reclamation, infrastructure development and human disturbance at shore meadows needs to be stopped.
Text account compilers
Malpas, L., Ekstrom, J., Wheatley, H., Butchart, S., Ashpole, J, Everest, J.
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Calidris temminckii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/03/2021.