VU
Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ace+3ce+4ace

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2ace+3ce+4ace
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 52,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 medium inferred 2018
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification:

African Raptor DataBank data suggests that given available habitat, of varying suitability, there could be a population size of 73,860 pairs in Africa. Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) estimated a global population of 100,000-999,999 individuals, with the population in South Asia estimated at between 10,000-99,999 individuals. Therefore, the overall population size is placed here in the range 100,000-499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Declines have been reported from northern, western and southern Africa (Global Raptors Information Network 2015). The Red Data Book of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland assessed the rate of decline as >60% over the past 50 years (Taylor 2015), and in Namibia the decline has been estimated at 63% over 30 years (Simmons 2015) (roughly equating to a decline of 80.8% over 3 generations [49.8 years]). In Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger the population outside protected areas decreased by over 87% between 1969-1973 and 2000-2004 (Thiollay 2006). In the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, the population decreased by 28% between 1976-1988 and 2003-2005 (Virani et al. 2011), roughly equivalent to 43.1-66.4% over 3 generations. The population is also thought to have plummeted in south Morocco to the extent that it is considered near to extinction there, but a breeding population possibly remains in Algeria (J. R. Garrido in litt. 2018). Such rapid declines are not seen across the entirety of its African range though, with increases seen in Botswana (Garbett et al. 2018, G. Maude in litt. 2018), and this species does remain the most common eagle in Ethiopia (E. Buechley in litt. 2018).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Djibouti U Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Guinea U Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy V Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar U Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Vietnam U Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aquila rapax. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2019.