Talaud Kingfisher Todiramphus enigma


Justification of Red List Category
Although this species apparently remains common within its tiny range, it is dependent on forest, and could decline rapidly if rates of habitat loss increase. Given that it has an intrinsically small population size, and hence is susceptible to stochastic events and human activities, it is considered Near Threatened.

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it has been described as common within the small, restricted range.

Trend justification
Population trend data are lacking, but this species apparently remains common, and has not been greatly affected by habitat loss, so it is suspected to be stable.

Distribution and population

Todiramphus enigma is restricted to the Talaud islands (Karakelang and Salibabu, with no contemporary records from Kabaruan [Riley 2003]), Indonesia, where it is apparently common and little affected by habitat loss (BirdLife International 2001).


This species occupies the mid-canopy of primary and secondary forest, often along streams (being replaced in cultivated and coastal areas by Collared Kingfisher T. chloris).


Some areas within its range are subject to logging pressure, including the Karakelang Hunting Reserve. However, this species is apparently able to persist in logged forest, though these are increasingly locations of contact with T. chloris, and the subsequent interaction of the two species is poorly understood. Selective logging and the small scale clearance for coconut, clove and banana plantations may be allowing T. chloris to expand further into the former exclusive range of T. enigma

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
A population of this species occurs in the Karakelang Hunting Reserve.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population trends across the range to determine whether declines are occurring. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements and tolerance of secondary habitats. Campaign for the protection of remaining primary forests in the Talaud Islands.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J., Martin, R

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Todiramphus enigma. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.