CR
Tahiti Monarch Pomarea nigra



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
B1ab(iii); D B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Critically Endangered B1ab(iii); D
2018 Critically Endangered D
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2013 Critically Endangered D
2012 Critically Endangered D
2011 Critically Endangered D1
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 25-100 good observed 2019
Population trend Increasing good observed -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1-3 - - -
Largest subpopulations 33-100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.33 - - -

Population justification: In 2014, there were an estimated 43 territorial adults (20 in Maruapo, 13 in Papehue and 10 in Tiapa), plus at least ten more non-territorial birds (Blanvillain et al. 2015), fledging 12 young (LPO 2014). In 2015, 53 adults (but only 13 breeding pairs) fledged 14 young (Blanvillain et al. 2018). The population size has continued to rise, and in 2018 the population size was estimated at 79 adults (Blanvillain 2019, Blanvillain et al. 2020), followed by an estimated 91 adults in 2019 (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020). The species has a low reproductive rate; a study found that only 56% of pairs attempt to lay an egg in any year. (Blanvillain et al. 2018). Between 2015 and 2019, the number of breeding individuals was 26, 28, 28, 34 and 48 (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020). Therefore, the number of mature individuals is placed in the band 25-100 mature individuals.

The distances between the range valleys are small, and an individual transferred from Maruapo to Tiapa in 2009 was found to have moved back to its original Maruapo territory in 2012 (Blanvillain et al. 2013). However, differences have been observed between the calls of individuals in each valley, and ringed individuals have not been confirmed to move between the valleys spontaneously (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020). The species is therefore thought to have 1-3 subpopulations.

Trend justification: It was apparently rare throughout the 20th century and, during the period 1986-1991, was noted in only four valleys (several pairs at each locality) out of 39 visited (Monnet et al. 1993). In 1998, 25 birds were located in four valleys containing isolated populations of 5–7 birds each (Blanvillain et al. 2003). Following the initiation of a recovery programme in 1998, the population size began to increase slowly. Twenty-eight birds were recorded in 2000 (Blanvillain et al. 2003). In 2001, a further population of 33 birds was discovered upstream beyond several waterfalls, in one of the species's range valleys (Blanvillain et al. 2018). The total population in 2006 was estimated at 40-45 individuals (P. Raust in litt. 2005, Gouni et al. 2007). In the mid-2000s, the population size declined slightly, and by 2009, the population size was estimated at 33 individuals (Ghestemme 2009). From 2009 onwards, the population size has continued to increase. There were 36 known mature birds in 2010 (Blanvillain et al. 2013), 40 individuals (including seven fledglings) in 2011 (Ghestemme et al. 2011) and 43-44 individuals in 2012 (Blanvillain 2012). In 2014, there were an estimated 43 territorial adults (20 in Maruapo, 13 in Papehue and 10 in Tiapa), plus at least ten more non-territorial birds (Blanvillain et al. 2015). In 2015, 53 adults (but only 13 breeding pairs) fledged 14 young (Blanvillain et al. 2018). The rate of population increase has accelerated, and in 2018 the population size was estimated at 79 adults (Blanvillain 2019, Blanvillain et al. 2020), followed by an estimated 91 adults in 2019 (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020).

The rate of population increase has been estimated at 1% per year from 1998-2012, 11% per year from 2012 onwards, and 17% per year from 2016 (SOP-Manu 2018, Blanvillain et al. 2020).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
French Polynesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Vallée Maruapo
French Polynesia Vallées Papehue, Hopuetamai, Orofero
French Polynesia Vallées Maruapo, Papehue, Hopuetamai et Orofero

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 80 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Acridotheres tristis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Circus approximans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Miconia calvescens Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Plasmodium relictum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pycnonotus cafer Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Spathodea campanulata Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Wasmannia auropunctata Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Circus approximans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Todiramphus veneratus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pomarea nigra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/01/2021.