Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population is estimated to number c.25,000-100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.
Behaviour This species is strongly migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from May to August (Hayman et al. 1986) in scattered solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and forages singly (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Coates and Bishop 1997) or in dispersed flocks outside of the breeding season (Coates and Bishop 1997). The species is crepuscular and nocturnal in its foraging activities (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding It breeds in open deciduous or mixed deciduous/evergreen woodland, showing a preference for grassy areas near marshes and streams (del Hoyo et al. 1996), clearings (Johnsgard 1981), clear-cut areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996), woodland along river valleys (Hayman et al. 1986) and open regions of forest with meadows, thickets and young stands of aspen Populus spp. or birch Betula spp. (Flint et al. 1984). It generally avoids very wet or boggy sites during this season (Johnsgard 1981) but may occur on alpine meadows near the treeline (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding In it's non-breeding range the species occurs in dense growths of grass and rushes around the edge of fresh and brackish (Higgins and Davies 1996) marshes (Higgins and Davies 1996, del Hoyo et al. 1996), swamps, pools, small streams, rice paddy-fields, sewage ponds (Higgins and Davies 1996, del Hoyo et al. 1996), rank grassland (Higgins and Davies 1996, Coates and Bishop 1997) and dry cultivated areas (e.g. with crops of rapeseed and wheat) (Higgins and Davies 1996). It may also be observed foraging among hummocks or on mudflats around seepage areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists of earthworms, adult and larval insects (e.g. glow-worms, beetles, ants and grasshoppers) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), terrestrial molluscs (Johnsgard 1981) and seeds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a simple scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) placed on dry substrates (Johnsgard 1981) with short grass (Flint et al. 1984) on slight elevations (del Hoyo et al. 1996) or mounds (Flint et al. 1984) in swamps and bogs (Johnsgard 1981), amongst bushes, or in the open in forest meadows (Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Gallinago megala. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019.