Swinhoe's Pheasant Lophura swinhoii


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2016 Near Threatened B1ab(ii,iii);C2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened B1ab(ii,iii);C2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(iii); C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land mass type land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,800 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-6700 poor estimated 2001
Population trend decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.5,000-10,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2001), roughly equivalent to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining outside of protected areas owing to habitat degradation. An analysis of deforestation from 2000 to 2012 found that forest within the species's range was lost at a rate equivalent to 1% over three generation lengths (Tracewski et al. 2016). This suggests that the overall population is declining only slowly.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Taiwan, China extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Taiwan, China Chuyanshan Nature Reserve
Taiwan, China Dawushan Nature Reserve and Shuang-guei Lake Major Wildlife Habitat
Taiwan, China Daxueshan, Xueshankeng, Wushikeng, Taichung City
Taiwan, China Hapen and Fushan
Taiwan, China Nengdan, Nantou County
Taiwan, China North Section of Xueshan Mountain Range, Taoyuan City
Taiwan, China Ruei-yan, Nantou County
Taiwan, China Sanping
Taiwan, China Shei-Pa National Park
Taiwan, China Shihmen Reservoir
Taiwan, China Taroko National Park
Taiwan, China Upstream Section of Beigang River, Nantou County
Taiwan, China Yuli Wildlife Refuge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 300 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Lophura swinhoii. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/swinhoes-pheasant-lophura-swinhoii on 06/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 06/06/2023.