VU
Swan Goose Anser cygnoid



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
A. cygnoid (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as A. cygnoides.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2013 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,410,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population has been estimated at c.60,000-90,000 individuals (Liu Binsheng et al. 2002, Zhao Jisheng 2002, Lei Jinyu per T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012). Barter et al. (2004) and Barter (in prep.) counted 60,886 individuals in the Lower Yangtze Valley in 2004 and 61,178 individuals in 2005 (see also Barter in litt. 2007). In addition, the population in Korea has been estimated at c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals. The most recent coordinated survey of the Yangtze River wetlands in January 2011 found a total of 87,544 individuals (Lei Jinyu per T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012), suggesting an upwards revision of the upper boundary for the estimate of mature individuals to 90,000.  However, this apparent increase is more likely the result of better count coverage than a genuine increase in population size (T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012).

Trend justification: Substantial declines have been observed in the population of this species in parts of its breeding range in eastern Russia and Mongolia (BirdLife International 2001), as well as its wintering areas in China (Zhang et al. 2011), thus the global population is suspected to have decreased rapidly, in line with levels of hunting and wetland conversion for agriculture and development, with both of these threats operating on the breeding and wintering grounds. The increase in the population estimate following surveys in January 2011 is unlikely to represent an actual increase in the population (T. Fox and Cao Lei in litt. 2012).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant
Turkmenistan V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes)
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Caimushan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changshou Hu
China (mainland) Chi Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hong Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huret
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jiangkou Niaozhou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Liangshui Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mangui
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Mudanfeng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Niuxintaobao
China (mainland) Nuomin - Bila He - Dayangshu
China (mainland) Ordos Taolimiao - Alashanwan Haizi
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Pangquangou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Qagan Nur
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Qingdao-Rizhao coastal wetland and islands
China (mainland) Qingtongxia reservoir and Yellow River wetlands in Zhongning and Zhongwei
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui)
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Jiangsu)
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulgai
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yunfeng Reservoir
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Nomrog
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Shaazan Lake
Mongolia Sharga Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
North Korea Amrok River estuary
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Chongdan field
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
North Korea Panmun field
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Trekhozerki lakes
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Ul'banskiy bay
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Gyeongpo-ho lake
South Korea Han-gang estuary
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Turkmenistan Nargyz

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Anser cygnoid. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2019.