VU
Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 414,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in rapid decline owing to the on-going and rapid conversion and drainage of wet grassland habitats and the intensification of agricultural practice.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries)
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas
India Barail Range
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Deobali Jalah, Sialmari, Haibargaon, Khutikatia (Nagaon)
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Kaziranga National Park
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Majuli
India Manas National Park
India Nameri National Park
India Orang National Park
India Pabho Reserve Forest
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests
India Son Beel
India Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary
India Subansiri
India Valmiki Tiger Reserve and Saraiyaman Lake
India Dudhwa National Park
India Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Lagga - Bagga Reserve Forest
India Sohagibarwa Wildlife Sanctuary
India Soheldev Wildlife Sanctuary
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park)
India Gorumara National Park
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
India Deobali Jalah
India Sareswar Beel
India Maguri and Motapung Beels
India Manas Reserve Forest
India Barail Wildlife Sanctuary
India Chirang Reserve Forest
India Ripu Reserve Forest
India Pilibhit Tiger Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 350 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Francolinus gularis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/06/2020.