Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c;C1
2013 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c;C1
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c;C1
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 46 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,690,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,730,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 20000-49999 poor suspected 2022
Population trend decreasing poor inferred -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 3.55 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally rare or very rare to locally uncommon, even within protected areas (del Hoyo et al. 2020). Based on available evidence, the population is precautionarily suspected to number 20,000-49,999 mature individuals, though an exact population estimate is urgently required.

Trend justification: The population is apparently declining, though the causes are unclear (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, del Hoyo et al. 2020). Despite its for open habitats with scattered trees, extensive habitat conversion within the range is probably negatively affecting the population (del Hoyo et al. 2020).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina extant native yes
Brazil extant native yes
Paraguay extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge
Argentina San Pedro
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí
Brazil Serra do Caraça

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Phibalura flavirostris. Downloaded from on 30/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/09/2023.