Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata


Anderson, E.M., Dickson, R.D., Lok, E.K., Palm, E.C., Savard, J.L., Bordage, D., Reed, A. 2015. Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata). In: Rodewald, P.G. (ed.), The Birds of North America, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, New York.

Bendell, L.I. 2011. Sea ducks and aquaculture: the cadmium connection. Ecotoxicology 20(2): 474-478.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2015. Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada. CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report .

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. 2017. Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Drever, M.C., Clarck, R.G., Derksen, C., Slattery, S.M., Toose, P., Nudds, T.D. 2011. Population vulnerability to climate change linked to timing of breeding in boreal ducks. Global Change biology 18(2): 480-492.

Ford, R. G., Casey, J. L., & Williams, W. A. 2009. Acute seabird and waterfowl mortality resulting from the M/V Cosco Busan oil spill, November 7, 2007. California Department of Fish and Game Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento.

Fox, A. D., Jónsson, J. E., Aarvak, T., Bregnballe, T., Christensen, T. K., Clausen, K. K., Clausen, P., Dalby, L., Holm, T.E., Pavon-Jordan, D., Laursen, K., Lehikoinen, A., Lorentsen, S., Moller, A.P., Nordstrom, M., Ost, M., Soderquist, P., Therkildsen, O.R. 2015. Current and Potential Threats to Nordic Duck Populations — A Horizon Scanning Exercise. Annales Zoologici Fennici 52(4): 193-220.

Good, T.P., June, J.A., Etnier, M.A., Broadhurst, G. 2009. Ghosts of the Salish Sea: threats to marine birds in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits from derelict fishing gear. Marine Ornithology 37(1): 67-76.

Hamel, N.J., Burger, A.E., Charleton, K., Davidson, P., Lee, S., Bertram, D.F., & Parrish, J.K. 2009. Bycatch and beached birds: assessing mortality impacts in coastal net fisheries using marine bird strandings. Marine Ornithology 37(1): 41-60.

Henderson, J., Loe, J. 2014. The Prospects and Challenges for Arctic Oil Development. The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Koneff, M. D., Zimmerman, G. S., Dwyer, C. P., Fleming, K. K., Padding, P. I., Devers, P. K., Johnson, F.A., Runge, M.C., Roberts, A. J. 2017. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks. PloS one 12(4): e0175411.

Poland, J. S., Riddle, M. J., & Zeeb, B. A. 2003. Contaminants in the Arctic and the Antarctic: a comparison of sources, impacts, and remediation options. Polar Records 39(4): 369-383.

Riordan, B., Verbyla, D., & McGuire, A. D. 2006. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950–2002 remotely sensed images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 111.

Smith, P. E. 2005. A history of proposals for subpopulation structure in the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) population off western North America. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 46: 75-82.

Steinacher M. , Joos, F., Frolicher, T.L., Plattner, G.K., Doney, S.C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6(515-533).

Wetlands International. 2006. Waterbird Population Estimates – Fourth Edition. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Melanitta perspicillata. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022.