Sumatran Leafbird Chloropsis media


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Wells, D. R.; Dickinson, E. C.; Dekker, R. W. R. J. 2003. A preliminary review of the Chloropseidae and Irenidae. Zoologische Verhandelingen 344: 25-42.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2d+3d+4d A2d+3d+4d

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered A2d+3d+4d
2016 Vulnerable A2bd+3d+4d
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 130,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: The population size is unknown, and due to the severe trapping pressure exerted on the species it is not possibly to extrapolate suitable density figures across an estimated area of suitable habitat. Previously Sumatran Leafbird was considered likely to be common within range on Sumatra but poorly known (del Hoyo et al. 2005). However, while rates of bird trapping were high, a surge in popularity in leafbirds, especially Greater Green C. sonnerati, occurred from 2012 onwards resulting in exceptionally high numbers being trapped and traded (Chng et al. 2017) with increases in all leafbird species traded. Sumatra has been heavily targeted by trappers since the ban on international imports following the Avian Influenza outbreak in 2001. Observations of Sumatran Leafbird are now very few, widely scattered across the former range (J. Eaton in litt. 2016), and the population is certainly much reduced.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be suffering a very rapid declining in population due to trapping for the cage bird trade, coupled with ongoing habitat destruction. A process of expert review classified the species as 'Severely Declining' (Harris et al. 2015), and a modelling approach to estimating potential rates of decline based on accessibility of the range and desirability of the species calculated that the species could be suspected to decline by 72% due to hunting within the next three-generation period (Symes et al. 2018).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 600 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chloropsis media. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/04/2020.