Sumatran Green-pigeon Treron oxyurus


Justification of Red List category
This scarce montane species probably has a moderately small population which is likely to be declining owing to continuing habitat degradation. It therefore qualifies as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as locally common, although generally scarce on Sumatra and very rare on Java (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends, but this species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, owing to habitat degradation.

Distribution and population

Treron oxyurus is restricted to Sumatra (350-1,800 m) and West Java (600-3,000 m), Indonesia; although formerly considered locally common, it is now apparently very hard to find on both islands (BirdLife International 2001). There are recent records from Halimun-Salak National Park on Java, and Gunung Kerinci and Gunung Sinabung on Sumatra (eBird 2017). 


It occurs in primary and secondary hill and montane forest, to 1,900 m in Sumatra and to 3,000 m in Java, where it keeps high in the canopy (Gibbs et al. 2001, Eaton et al. 2016). Breeding has been recorded during January in Sumatra and during June in Java (Gibbs et al. 2001). 


Destruction of its preferred habitat has been widespread in the lower parts of its elevation range, and it is now uncommon and patchily distributed throughout its range.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size. Regularly monitor at certain sites throughout its range to determine population trends. Investigate the extent of hunting by local residents. If relevant, control hunting where possible, perhaps using awareness campaigns. Protect significant areas of primary montane forest across its altitudinal range.


Text account compilers
Westrip, J., Mahood, S., Martin, R, Taylor, J., Benstead, P.

Eaton, J., Hutchinson, R.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Treron oxyurus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/sumatran-green-pigeon-treron-oxyurus on 02/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 02/03/2024.