Sulawesi Scops-owl Otus manadensis


Taxonomic note
Subspecies kalidupae previously placed in Otus manadensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) but now transferred to O. magicus following O'Connell et al. (2020). O. manadensis, O. mendeni and O. sulaensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as O. manadensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993). Probably closely related to O. elegans and O. collari, and until recently considered to include O. siaoensis (see related note/s), O. mendeni and O. sulaensis (see related note/s); these six appear to form a species-group. Classification and true affinities of Otus taxa in SE Asia, particularly island forms, highly complex, with relationship between present species and O. magicus not fully understood. Formerly treated as conspecific with O. magicus; has been considered to include O. beccarii. Recently listed as including O. elegans, perhaps in error. Sulu form sibutuensis, currently included in O. mantananensis, sometimes placed with present species. Monotypic.

Taxonomic source(s)
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2022. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 7. Available at:

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 430,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-5 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 95-99 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be common and widespread (del Hoyo et al. 1999, Eaton et al. 2021) and this is supported by citizen science data (eBird 2022).

Trend justification: The population is suspected of declining slowly owing to slow rates of forest cover loss in its range, equivalent to c.5% in the ten years to 2021 (Global Forest Watch 2022, based on data from Hansen et al. [2013] and methods disclosed therein). The species is however tolerant of habitat degradation, and therefore ongoing declines are suspected of being between 1 and 9% over ten years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Otus manadensis. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023.