Stripe-cheeked Bulbul Arizelocichla milanjensis


Taxonomic note

Arizelocichla milanjensis and A. striifacies (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as Andropadus milanjensis following Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993).


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A3c+4c
2016 Least Concern
2012 Not Recognised
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 73,400 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 48,968
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 984000-4528000 estimated 2021
Population trend decreasing suspected 2016-2031
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 20-29 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 20-29 - - -
Generation length (years) 5.08 - - -

Population justification: The pre-split species was observed at densities of 30-138 birds/km2 (del Hoyo et al. 2020). Based on a maximum AOO of 48,968 km2 (BirdLife International 2021) the population may number 1,469,040 - 6,757,584 individuals. This is roughly equivalent to 984,256 - 4,527,581 mature individuals, rounded here to 984,000 - 4,528,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining due to ongoing forest loss across its range. Data from Global Forest Watch (2021) suggests that the rate of decline in the future will likely fall in the range of 20-29%.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Malawi extant native yes
Mozambique extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mozambique Chimanimani Mountains (Mozambique)
Mozambique Gorongosa Mountain and National Park
Zimbabwe Nyanga mountains
Zimbabwe Nyanga lowlands/Honde valley
Zimbabwe Stapleford Forest
Zimbabwe Bvumba Highlands
Zimbabwe Banti Forest Reserve
Zimbabwe Chimanimani Mountains (Zimbabwe)
Zimbabwe Haroni - Rusitu junction and Botanical Reserves
Zimbabwe Chirinda Forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 760 - 1850 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 350 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Arizelocichla milanjensis. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/stripe-cheeked-bulbul-arizelocichla-milanjensis on 29/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/09/2023.